See also:lat. and 66° 45' 0" E. long., 350 ft. above
See also:sea level, capital of the small
See also:independent state of
See also:Las Bela to the south of
See also:Kalat (
See also:Baluchistan), ruled by the Jam (or Cham), who occupies the position of a protected chief under the
See also:British Raj . To the east lies
See also:Sind, and to the west
See also:Makran, and from
See also:time immemorial the
See also:great trading route between Sind and
See also:Persia has passed through Las Bela . The
See also:area of Las Bela is 6357 sq. in., and its population in 1901 was 56,109, of which 54,040 were Mussulmans . The low-lying, alluvial, hot and malarial plains of Las Bela, occupying about 6000 sq. m. on the
See also:north-east corner of the Arabian Sea, are highly irrigated and fertile—two
See also:rivers from the north, the Purali and the Kud, uniting to provide a plentiful
See also:water supply . The
See also:bay of Sonmiani once extended over most of these plains, where the Purali
See also:delta is now growing with measurable strides . The
See also:hill ranges to the east, parting the plains from Sind (generally known locally as the Mor and the Kirthar), between which lies the long narrow
See also:line of the Hab valley,' strike nearly north and south, diminishing in height as they approach the sea and allowing of a route skirting the
See also:coast between
See also:Karachi and Bela . To the west they are broken into an infinity of minor ridges massing themselves in parallel formation with a strike which curves from south to west till they
See also:form the coast barrier of Makran . The Persian route from India, curving somewhat to the north, traverses this waste of barren ridges almost at right angles, but on dropping into the Kolwah valley its difficulty ceases . It then becomes an open road to
See also:Kej and Persia, with an .easy gradient . This was undoubtedly one of the greatest
See also:trade routes of the
See also:medieval days of Arab ascendancy in Sind, and it is to this route that Bela owes a place in
See also:history which its
See also:modern appearance and dimensions hardly seem to justify . Bela is itself rather prettily situated on a rocky site above the
See also:banks of the Purali . About four
See also:miles to the south are the well-kept gardens which surround the
See also:tomb of
See also:Sir Robert Sandeman; which is probably destined to become a "
See also:ziarat.," or place of pilgrimage, of even greater sanctity than that of General Jacob at
See also:Jacobabad .
The population of the
See also:town numbers about 5000 . The Jam's retinue consists of about 300
See also:infantry, 50
See also:cavalry, and 4 guns . Liability to assist on active service is the only
See also:acknowledgment of the
See also:suzerainty which is paid by the Jam to the Khan of Kalat . The Jam, Mir Kamal Khan, succeeded his
See also:father, Sir Mir Khan, in 1895, and was formally invested with
See also:powers in 1902 . From very early times this remote corner of Baluchistan has held a distinct place in history . There are traces of
See also:ancient Arab (possibly Himyaritic) occupation to be found in certain
See also:stone ruins at Gondakeha on the Kud
See also:river, ro m. to the north-west of Bela, whilst the Greek name " Arabic " for the Purali is itself indicative of an early prehistoric connexion with races of
See also:Asiatic Ethiopians referred to by
See also:Herodotus . On the coast, near the
See also:village of Sonmiani (a station of the Indo-Persian telegraph line) may be traced the indentation which once formed the bay of Morontobara, noted in the voyage of
See also:Nearchus; and it was on the
See also:borders of Makran that the Turanian town of Rhambakia was situated, which was once the centre of the trade in "
See also:bdellium." In the 7th century A.D . Las Bela was governed by a Buddhist
See also:priest, at which time all the province of Gandava was Buddhist, and Sind was ruled by the
See also:Brahman, Chach . Buddhist caves are to be found excavated in the
See also:conglomerate cliffs near Gondakeha, at a place called Gondrani, or Shahr-i-Rogan . With the influx of
See also:Arabs into Makran, Bela, under the name of Armel (or Armabel),
See also:rose to importance as a
See also:link in the great chain of trading towns between Persia and Sind; and then there existed in the delta such places as Yusli (near the modern Uthal) and Kambali (which may possibly be recognized in the ruins at Khairokot), and many smaller towns, each of which possessed its citadel, its
See also:caravanserai and
See also:bazaar, which are not only recorded but actually mapped by one of the medieval Arab geographers,
See also:Ibn Haukal . It is probable that Karia Pir, r m. to the east of the modern city, represents the site of the Armabel which was destroyed by Mahommed Kasim in his victorious
See also:march to Sind in 710 . There is another old site 5 m. to the west of the modern town .
The ruins at663 Karia Pir, like those of Tijarra Pir and Khairokot, contain Arab pottery,
See also:seals, and other medieval
See also:relics . The Lumris, or Lasis, who originate the name Las as a prefix to that of Bela, are the dominant tribe in the province . They are comparatively
See also:recent arrivals who displaced the earlier
See also:Tajik and
See also:Brahui occupants . It is probable that this influx of
See also:Rajput population was coincident with the displacement of the Arab dynasties in Sind by the
See also:Mahommedan Rajputs in the rrth century A.D . Some authorities connect the Lumris with the Sumras . There are no published accounts of Bela, excepting those of the
See also:government reports and gazetteers . This article is compiled from unpublished notes by the author and by Mr Wainwright, of the Indian Survey department . (T . H . H .
BELAY (from the same O. Eng. origin as " lay "; cf....
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