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BIBL1OGRAPHY

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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 152 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BIBL1OGRAPHY. Editions.—The classical edition is that of R. L. Ellis, J. Spedding and D. D. Heath, 1st ed., 1857; 2nd ed., 187o (vols. i.-iii., philosophical writings; iv.-v., translations; vi.-vii., literary and professional works). B. Montagu's edition (17 vols., 1825–1834) is full but unscholarly. An extremely useful reprint (in one volume) of the philosophical works (with a few not strictly philosophical), based on the first Ellis-Spedding edition, was published by J. M. Robertson (London, 19o5); besides the original introductions, it contains a useful summary by the editor of the various problems of Bacon's life and thought. Numerous cheap editions have lately been published, e.g. in the " World's Classics " (1901), and " New Universal Library " series (1905) ; Sidney Lee, English Works of Francis Bacon (London, 1905). Of particular works there are numerous editions in all the chief languages. The following are the most important :—T. Fowler, Novum Organum (Oxford, 1878; ed. 1889), with notes, full introduction on Bacon's philosophy in all its relations, and a most valuable bibliography. This superseded the edition of G. W. Kitchin (Oxford, 1855). The Essays have been edited more than twenty times since 187o; the following editions may be mentioned:—Archbishop Whately (6th ed., 1864) ; W. Aldis Wright (Lond., 1862) ; F, Store and Gibson (Lond., 1886) ; E. A. Abbott (Lond., 1879) ; John Buchan (Lond., 1879) ; A. S. West (Cambridge, 1897) ; W. Evans (Edinburgh, 1897). A facsimile reprint of the 1st edition was published in New York (19o4). Advancement of Learning: W. Aldis Wright (Camb., 1866; 5th ed., 1900); F. G. Selby (1892–1895); H. Morley (1905) ; and, with the New Atlantis, in the World's Classics " series (introduction by Prof. T. Case, Lond., 1906). Wisdom of the Ancients and New Atlantis, in " Cassell's National Library " (1886 and 1903). G. C. M. Smith, New Atlantis (1900). J. Fiirstenhagen, Kleinere Schriften (Leipzig, 1884). Biography.—J. Spedding, The Life and Letters of Lord Bacon (1861), Life and Times of Francis Bacon (1878); also Dr Rawley's Life in the Ellis-Spedding editions, and J. M. Robertson's reprint (above) ; W. Hepworth Dixon, Personal History of Lord Bacon (Lond., 1861), and Story of Lord Bacon's Life (1b. 1862); John Campbell, Lives of the Chancellors (Lond., 1845), 1i. 51; P. Wood-ward, Early Life of Lord Bacon (1902) ; T. Fowler, Francis Bacon in " English Philos." series (Lond., 1881); R. W. Church's Bacon, in " Men of Letters " series (1884). Philosophy.—Beside the introductions in the Ellis-Spedding and T. Fowler editions, and general histories of philosophy, see:—Kuno Fischer, Fr. Bacon (1856, 2nd ed., 1875, Eng. trans. by John Oxenford, Lond., 1857) ; Ch. de Remusat, Bacon, sa vie . et son influence (1857, ed. 1858 and 1877); G. L. Craik, Lord Bacon, his Writings and his Philosophy (3 vols., 1846–1847, ed. 186o) ; A. Dorner, De Baconis Philosophia (Berlin, 1867; London, 1886) ; J. v. Liebig, Uber F. B. v. Verulam (Mannheim, 1863) ; Ad. Lasson, Uber B. v. Verulam's wissenschaftliche Principien (Berl., 186o) ; E. H. Balmer, Uber F. B. v. Verulam (Erlangen, 1864) ; Ch. Adam, Philos. de Francis Bacon (Paris, 1890) ; Barthelemy St Hilaire, Etude sur Francis Bacon (Paris, 1890) ; R. W. Church, op. cit. ; H. Heussler, F. Bacon and seine geschichtliche Stellung (Breslau, 1889); H. Hoff-ding, History of Modern Philosophy (Eng. trans., 1900) ; J. M. Robertson, Short History of Freethought (Lond., 1906); Sidney Lee, Great Englishmen of the' 6th century (Lond., 1904). For the relations between Bacon and Ben Jonson see The Tale of the Shakespeare Epitaphs by Francis Bacon (New York, 1888) ; for Bacon's poetical gifts see an article in the Fortnightly Review (March 1905). For the Bacon-Shakespeare controversy see SHAKESPEARE. (R. AD.; J. M. M.)
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