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BIBLIOGRAPHIES

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 552 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BIBLIOGRAPHIES.—The best modern account of the original authorities for the Crusades is that of A. Molinier, Les Sources de l'histoire de France, vols. ii. and iii. W. Wattenbach's Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen gives an account of Albert of Aix (vol. ii., ed. 1894, pp. 170-180) and of Ekkehard of Aura (ibid. pp. 189-198). Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable. Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and H. Prutz has also a short account of some of the historians of the Crusades (Kulturgeschichte, pp. 453-469). Finally reference may be made to the works of Kugler and Klimke above mentioned, and to J. F. Michaud's Bibliographie des croisades (Paris, 1822). Modern Writers.—The various works of R. Rohricht present the soundest, if not the brightest, account of the Crusades. There is a Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzugs (Innsbruck, 1901), a Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem (ibid. 1898) and a Geschichte der Kreuzzuge in Umris (ibid. 1898). For the First Crusade von Sybel's work and Chalandon's Alexis I" Comnene may also be mentioned; for the Fourth A. Luchaire's volume on Innocent III: La Question d'Orient; while for the whole of the Crusades Norden's Papstum and Byzanz is of value. B. Kugler's Geschichte der Kreuzzuge (in Oncken's series) still remains a suggestive and valuable work; and L. Brehier's L'Eglise et l'orient an moyen age (Paris, 1907) contains not only an up-to-date account of the Crusades, but also a full and useful bibliography, which should be consulted for fuller information. On points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and their Mahommedan neighbours, W. B. Stevenson's The Crusaders in the East (Cambridge, I907)is very valuable. On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).social history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem DDodu"s Histoire des institutions du royaume latin de Jerusalem is very useful; E. G. Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization. The works of Gmelin and J. Delaville-Leroulx on the Templars and Hospitallers respectively are worth consulting; while for Eastern affairs the English reader may be referred to G. Lestrange's Palestine under the Moslem, and to Stanley Lane-Poole's Life of Saladin and his Mahommedan Dynasties (the latter a valuable work of reference). (E. BR.)
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