Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V26, Page 269 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BIBLIOGRA PH v.—a. General.—The indispensable work for any one desiring to know what books have been written on any subject relating to Switzerland is the officially published Bibliographie der schweizerischen Landeskunde, a series of detached parts, each complete in itself, and issued separately (Bern, from 1892 onwards). In particular may be mentioned: A. Waber's Landes- and Reisebeschreibungen (1899; with a supplement, 1909), that deals with works of travel in Switzerland (see, too, the new edition, London, 1899, of J. Ball's Hints and Notes for Travellers in the Alps, pp. 14o-152), and J. H. Graf, Kartenwesen (1896), which enumerates all the maps of Switzerland and its various districts. Among the best of the older descriptions may be mentioned those of A. von Bonstetten (1479), Conrad Tiirst (1495), Sebastian Munster (1544), J. Stumpf (1548), J. Simler (1574), M. Merian (1642), J. J. Scheuchzer (1723), G. S. Gruner (1760), P. F. D. de Zurlauben (1777) and W. Coxe ;1i79). More modern, but still useful in many ways, are Max Wirth, Allgemeine Beschreibung and Statistik der Schweiz (3 vols., Zurich, 1871-1875), and H. A. Berlepsch, Schweizerkunde (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1875)). The most complete and recent mono-graph on the country from all points of view is the work (700 pp.) entitled La Suisse (also in German), with atlas of 48 maps, reprinted from the Dictionnaire geographique de la Suisse Neuchatel, 1909). For a pretty complete detailed account of its chief towns, villages and mountains, by far the best work is the Dictionnaire geographique de la Suisse (Neuchatel, 1902, and following years; it is also issued in German). A complete account of the country in the 19th century is given in the work entitled La Suisse au xix'"e siecle (3 vols., Lausanne, 1899–1900; also issued in German). For statistics see the official census of 1900 (Bern, 3 vols., 1904–1907), as well as the annual official publication Statistisches Jahrbuch der Schweiz (from 1891, see specially the vol. for 1897, Atlas graphique et siatistique de la Suisse, with many diagrams), and another (appearing six times a year at Bern, since 1865) the Zeitschrift fur schweizerische Statistik. For educational matters the annual official Jahrbuch fur Unterrichtswesen in der Schweiz (Zurich, from 1894) is very useful. For mountaineers there is the Climbers' Guides Series (London, from 1890, now comprising 11 vols. relating to Switzerland), and the two works published by the Swiss Alpine Club, Clubfuhrer durch die Glarner Alpen (1902), and Clubfithrer durch die Ulmer Alpen (2 vols., 1905). Murray's Handbook for Travellers in Switzerland Joanne, of which new editions often appear (that by Iwan von Tschudi is no longer kept up to date). The best maps of Switzerland are those published by the Federal Topographical Bureau at Bern. One, called from the director of the survey (G. H. Dufour, 1787–1875) the Dufour Map (scale 1 : ,00,000), was published in twenty-five sheets between 1845 and 1863 (see the detailed history of this map in the work entitled Die schweizerische Landesvermessung, 18,32–1864, Bern, 1896). It has however, been practically superseded by the issue (revised and corrected) of the original survey (scale I : 25,000 for the plains and 1 : 50,000 for the mountain districts) in 598 sheets, of which the publication began in 1.87o–this magnificent map, one of the finest ever executed, is named the Siegfried Atlas, from the successor of Dufour at the head of the survey, Hermann Siegfried (1819–1879). The history of Swiss travel has been told by G. Peyer, Geschichte des Reisens in der Schweiz (Basel, 1885), and W. A. B. Coolidge, Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-Books (London, 1889). That of the exploration of the Swiss Alps is contained in Gottlieb Studer's Ober Eis and Schnee (Bern, 3 vols., new ed., 1896–1899), while Bernard Studer's Geschichte der physischen Geographie der Schweiz bis 1815 (Bern, 1863) describes the gradual examination of the country from the scientific point of view. The last-named work contains many short lives of eminent Swiss. These are narrated more in detail in R. Wolf's Biographieen zur Kulturgeschichte der Schweiz (4 vols., Zurich, 1858–1862) ; E. Secretan's Galerie suisse (3 vols., Lausanne, 1873–188o) ; and Sammlung berner Biographieen (Bern, as yet 5 vols., 1884–1906). (See also ALPS and GLACIERS.) As to languages in Switzerland the best general work is J. Zimmerli's Die deutsch-franzosische Sprachgrenze in der Schweiz (3 vols., Basel and Geneva, 1891–1899) ; while for the Swiss-German dialects there is the splendid Schweizerisches Idiotikon (of which the publication began at Frauenfeld in 1881) ; and the Glossaire des patois de la Suisse romande. For one branch of the curious Ladin dialect, see Z. and E. Pallioppi's Dizionari dels idioms romauntschs d'Engiadina, &c. (Samaden, 1895) ; while for select extracts of all branches of the Romonsch or Ladin literature consult C. Decurtins, Raloromanische Chrestomathie (8 vols., Erlangen, 1894–1907), of which the vols. i., ii., iii. and iv. refer to the Romansch dialect of the BUndner Oberland, and the rest to the Ladin dialect of the Engadine. F. J. Stalder's Versuch eines schweizerischen Idiotikon (2 vols.-Aarau, 1806–1812) is still useful, as is his later work Die Landessprachen der Schweiz (Aarau, 1819). The Archiv fur Voikskunde published by the Societe suisse des traditions populaires (Zurich, from 1897), contains much that is interesting in the way of folk-lore, while for Swiss legends in general consult E. Kohlrusch, Schweizerisches Sagenbuch (Leipzig, 1854); A. Ltitolf, Sagen, Brauche, Legenden aus den Fiinf Orten (Lucerne, 1862) ; M. Tscheinen and P. J. Ruppen, Walliser-Sagen (Sion, 1872) ; A. Ceresole, Legendes des alpes vaudoises (Lausanne, 1885) ; J. Kuoni, Sagen des Kantons St Gallen (St Gall, 1903) ; T. Vernaleken, Alnensagen (Vienna, 1858) ; D. Gempeler's Sagen and Sagengeschichten aus dem Simmenthal (Thun,1883–1893) ; and Walliser-Sagen (2 vols., Brieg, 1907). Another feature of the life of the people in Switzerland is treated in H. Herzog's Schweizerische Volksfeste, Sitten, and Gebrauche (Aarau, 1884). For educational matters the two following books (with the Jahrbuch fur Unterrichtswesen in der Schweiz, already mentioned) will be found specially useful: F. Escali, L'Instruction primaire en Suisse (Paris, 1883) and the annual volume (Geneva, from 1904) entitled L'Education en Suisse. For the Swiss universities see the special histories mentioned in the articles on the several cantons, while for the Swiss Polytechnic School at Zurich, consult W. Oechsli's Geschichte der Grundung des eidg. Polytechnicums (Frauenfeld. 1905). As to the mountain pastures, see ALP, where a list of books is given. Swiss carriage. roads, especially across the Alpine passes, are described in S. Bavier, Die Strassen der Schweiz (Zurich, 1878), and the official book, Die schweizerischen Alpenpasse (2nd ed., 1893). For the history of the several Swiss Alpine passes consult in particular P. H. Scheffel, Verkehrsgeschichte der Alpen (Berlin, 1908–1909) ; R. Reinhard, Passe tend Strassen in den schweizer Alpen (Lucerne, 1903), which gives full references; and E. Oehlmann's articles " Die Alpenpasse im Mittelalter," published in vols. iii. and iv. (Zurich, 1878–1879) of the Jahrbuch fur schweizerische Geschichte). The Simplon has a special history, F. Barbey, La Route du Simplon (Geneva, 1906), as has also the St Gotthard; E. Motta, Dei Personaggi celebri the varcarono it Gottardo nei tempi antichi e moderni (Bellinzona, 1884; later continued in the Bollettino delta Svizzera Italiana). As to Swiss railways in general, see R. Herold, Der schweizerische Bund and die Eisenbahnen bis zur Jahrhundertwende (Munich, 1902) ; P. Weissenbach, Die Eisenbahnverstaatlichung in der Schweiz (Berlin, 1905) ; and C. P. Wiedemann, Die geschichtliche Entwicklung der schweizer. Eisenbahngesetzgebung (Zurich, 1905). The St Gotthard railway and its history are treated of at length by M. Wanner in his two works—Geschichte der Begrundun.g des Gotthardunternehmens (Lucerne, 188o) ; and Geschichte des Baues der Gotthardbahn (Lucerne, 1885). For a general estimate of the commercial importance of the Simplon railway, see A. Mohring, Die Simplonbahn—eine verkehrswirthscha(tliche Studie (Bern, 1907). For a technical description of the works for the Simplon tunnel see an article (also issued separately) by K. Pressel in vol. xlvii. of the Schweizerische Bauzeitung (Zurich), while similar details, as well as more general notices, relating to the Spliigen tunnel are given in G. Bener and R. Herold, Studien zur Ostalpenbahnfrage (Zurich, 1907) ; and A. Mettler, Der Spliigen als ostschweizerische Alpenbahn (Zurich, 1907). As to the Jungfrau railway, see A. H. Guyer-Zeller, Das Projeki der Jungfraubahn (Zurich, 1896, with atlas of plates) ; and S. Herzog, Die Jungfraubahn (Zurich, 1904). A special part of the Bibliographic der schweizer. Landeskunde is devoted to Swiss railways. Economical: Trade and Commerce.—As to the general economical state of Switzerland, the older Volkswirthschafts-Lexikon der Schweiz, by A. Furrer (Bern, 4 vols., 1885—1892), may still he consulted with advantage, while naturally more up to date is N. Reichesberg's Handworterbuch der Schweiz. Volkswirthschaft, Socialpolitik and Verwaltung (Bern, since 1903). A very useful and well-arranged work is A. Le Cointe's Inventaire des institutions economiques et sociales de la Suisse d la fin du xix" siecle (Geneva, 1900). W. H. Dawson's Social Switzerland (London, 1897), deals with matters rather from the social than from the strictly economical standpoint, but contains a variety of interesting information, while H. D. Lloyd's The Swiss Democracy (London, 1908), is rather more political. A very handy, trustworthy and admirable work of moderate size on Switzerland generally from an economical point of view is T. Geering and R. Hotz's Economie politique de la Suisse (Zurich, 1903, trans. of a German work issued in 1902)—the German only has the detailed bibliography. P. Clerget's La Suisse an xxe"" siecle (Paris, 1908), is very useful. Other works relating to Swiss industries and commerce are T. Geering, Die Handelspolitik der Schweiz am Ausgang des xix. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1902); E. Hofmann, Die Schweiz als Industrieslaat (Zurich, 1902); and H. Wartmann, Industrie and Handel der Schweiz im xix. Jahrhundert (Bern, 1902). The following are historical monographs as to some of the principal Swiss industries: A. Burkli-Meyer, Die Geschichte der zuricherischen Seidenindustrie (Zurich, 1894) ; H. Lehmann, Die aargauische Strohindustrie (Aarau, 1896) ; and A. Steinmann, Die ostschweizerische Stickerei-Industrie (Zurich, 1905); while the following deal rather with local centres of industry: H. Wartmann, Industrie and Handel des Kantons St Gallen auf 1866 (St Gall, 1870, besides many reports as to local industry, 1708 to 1890) ; T. Geering, Handel and Industrie der Stadt Basel (Basel, 1886); A. Bachelin, L'Horlogerie neuchdteloise (Neuchatel, 1888) ; and A. Pfleghart, Die schweizerische Uhrenindustrie (Leipzig, 1908). A full technical and well-illustrated description of some of the chief industrial establishments in Switzerland is given in Die industrielle und kommerzielle Schweiz beim Eintritt ins xx. Jahrhundert (Zurich, since 1900) ; while B. de Cerenville's Le Systeme continental et la Suisse, 1863—1813 (Lausanne, 1906) treats of an interesting period in Swiss commercial history. Swiss mercantile law is expounded in A. Curti's Schweizerisches Handelsrecht (Zurich, 1903). For purely financial matters the Finanz Jahrbuch (Bern, from 1899), contains much information of the latest date; while H. Ernst's Eine schweizerische Bundesbank (Winterthur, 1904) sketches the foundation of the Swiss National Bank that was successfully launched in 1907. G. Schanz's Die Steuern der Schweiz (5 vols., Stuttgart, 1890) is a remarkably complete and instructive work; while the later book by J. Steiger, Grundzuge des Finanzhaushaltes der Kantone and Gemeinden (2 vols., Bern, 1903), is specially devoted to taxes levied by the cantons and the communes, and is of the greatest utility in studying a very complicated subject. E. Naef's Tabakmonopol and Biersteuer (Zurich, 1903), treats of two special sources of revenue in the Swiss financial system. The history of the Swiss coinage is admirably narrated, with many fine illustrations, by L. Coraggioni, in his Miinzgeschichte der Schweiz (Geneva, 1896), and is the chief authority on Swiss numismatics in general. As to the fine arts, the best general work on medieval Swiss architecture is J. R. Rahn's Geschichte der bildenden Kiinste in der Schweiz (Zurich, 1876). The same author has also collected various of his art essays in his Kunst- and Wanderstudien in der Schweiz (Vienna, 1883), while he has described (alone or with the help of others) the chief art monuments in the various Swiss cantons—these notices appeared in the Anzeiger fair schweiz. Alterthumskunde (Zurich, from 1868), and for the cantons of Soleure, Ticino, Thurgau and Unterwalden, form appendices which are really art monographs. An older and more special work on the same subject is J. D. Blavignac's Histoire del'architecture sacree du ive"'e au xer"" siecle dans les anciens eveches de Geneve, Lausanne, et Sion (Geneva, 1853). There are two general books on the special subject of Swiss castles—Mme de Montmolier's Les Chdteaux suisses (1816—1823, new ed., later); and F. Kupfer's Burgen and Schlosser der Schweiz (n.d.). Many have now special monographs; so Habsburg (1896) and Lenz-burg (1904), both by W. Merz, whose later work Die nzitlelatterlichezz Burganlagen and Wehrbauten des Kantons Aargau (2 vols., Aarau, 1906) is a very complete treatise on the most castellated region of the country. For the Bernese castles we have E. L. C. Edenand A. von Fischer's Die Schlosser d. Kant. Bern (Bern, about 1898). All the great churches of Switzerland have also been made the subject of monograph's—so the Munster in Bern, by B. Haendcke and V. Muller (Bern, 1894); Lausanne, by E. Dupraz (Lausanne, 1906), &c. As to the wooden architecture so characteristic of Switzerland, consult E. G. Gladbach's Die Holz-Architektur der Schweiz (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1885—the same author has also issued several series of plates illustrating this subject). Domestic Swiss architecture in general is represented by J. Hunziker's Das Schweizerhaus (Aarau), which includes 4 vols. dealing respectively with the Valais (1900), Ticino (1902), the Grisons and Glarus (1905), and the Jura with most of the Suisse Romande (1907). A. Robida's Les Vieilles villes de Suisse (Paris, 1879) is a pleasantly written book. The biographies of Swiss artists are conveniently summarized in the Schweizerisches Kilnstler-Lexikon (Frauenfeld, from 1902 onwards), the order followed being alphabetical, while full references to special works, are given in each case. For Swiss glass painting, see H. Meyer's Die schweizerische Sitte der Fenster- and Wappenschenkung vom xv. bis xvii. Jahrhundert (Frauenfeld, 1884) ; and B. Haendcke's Die schweiz. Malerei im xvi. Jahrhundert unter Beriicksichtigung der Glasmalerei, des Formschnittes, and des Kupferstiches (Aarau, 1893) ; while Swiss fresco painting is treated of in Konrad Escher's Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Wand- and Deckeninalerei in der Schweiz vom ix. bis zum Anfang des xvi. Jahrhunderts (Strassburg, 1906); while the town shields are depicted in P. Kupfer's Armorial des villes suisses (Basel, 1885) ; and their seals in E. Schulthess's Die Steidle- and Landes-Siegel der Schweiz (Zurich, 1853). Early Swiss heraldry is historically described in P. Ganz's Geschichte d. herald. Kunst in der Schweiz im xii. and xiii. Jahrhundert (Frauenfeld, 1899). The Swiss Renaissance is dealt with by G. Schneeli, Renaissance in der Schweiz (Munich, 1896); while J. H. Heer in his Die schweiz. Malerei des xix. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1905), has printed his lectures relating to most of the best-known modern Swiss painters. Many splendid series of reproductions in various departments of Swiss art have appeared, two of the most striking being the three series of Handzeichnungen schweizerischer Meister des xv.—xviii. Jahrhunderts (Basel, from 1904) ; and the Kunstdenkmaler der Schweiz (2nd series, Geneva, from 1901), to which we may add R. Anheisser's Altschweizerische Baukunst (Bern, 1906-1907) ; R. Hinderer, Alte schweizer Bauweise (Frankfort, 1907) ; and the four series (Bern, 1883—1887) of E. von Rodt's Kunstgeschichtliche Denkmaler der Schweiz. The most artistic and accurate reproductions of Swiss costumes are the thirty-six coloured plates, drawn after originals, published by Fr. Julie Heierli (Zurich, 1897, sqq.), under the title of Die schweizer Trachten vom xvii.—xix. Jahrhundert. b. History.—The great collection (officially published in 32 vols., 1858—1905) entitled Amtliche Sammlung der atom eidgenossischen Abschiede contains all the recesses of the Diet, &c., from 1245 to 1848, and is absolutely indispensable. A series of selected extracts from chroniclers, documents, &c., is given in W. Oechsli's Quellenbuch zur Schweizergeschichte (2 vols. 2nd ed. of vol. i. 1901, and 1st ed. of vol. ii., Zurich, 1893). The texts (with short introductions) of all the Federal Constitutions from 1798 onwards are conveniently collected in S. Kaiser and J. Strickler's Geschichte and Texte der Bundesverfassungen der schweiz. Eidgenossenschaft von 1798 bis zur Gegenwart (Bern, 1901). The texts of the early alliances (1291—1513) are reprinted in J. von Ah's Die Bundesbriefe der alien Eidgenossen (Einsiedeln, 1891), while a commentary on all the Federal Constitutions from 1291 (with reprints of certain texts) is furnished by C. Hilty in his Die Bundesverfassungen der schweiz. Fridgenossenschaft (Bern, 1891; also in French). For more recent documents and laws see the Amtliche Sammlung der Bundesgesetze (from 1849 onwards), which are conveniently arranged and classified by P. Wolf in his Die schweizerische Bundesgesetzgebung (2nd ed., 3 vols., Basel, 1905—1908). G. von Wyss's Geschichte der Historiographie in der Schweiz (Zurich, 1895) is an admirable guide to the works and lives of all Swiss historians up to about 1850, while all articles (published in Swiss periodicals from 1812 to 1900) relating to the subject are most carefully indexed and classified in J. L. Brandstetter and H. Barth's Repertorium ziber die in Zeit- and Sammelschriften enthaltenen Aufsatze and Mitteilungen schweizergeschichtlichen Inhaltes (2 vols., Basel, 1892 and 1906). The latest revised texts of the Federal Constitution and (often) of the cantonal constitutions can be procured separately, but the last official collection of all in one volume dates from 1891 (Recueil des constitutions federales et cantonales), since which time many changes have been made. These can generally be discovered, and much valuable present-day knowledge of Swiss matters gained, in C. Hilty's Politisches Jahrbuch der schweizer. Eidgenossenschaft (published at Bern annually since 1886). The best general recent histories are J. Dierauer, Geschichte der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (3 vols., up to 1648, Zurich, 1887—1907 to be continued), which gives in detail the original authorities and the statements of modern writers for every point; W. D. McCrackan, The Rise of the Swiss Republic (2nd ed., New York, 1901), and B. van Muyden, Histoire de la nation suisse (3 vols., Lausanne, 1896—1899). Some of the older histories (such as those of Daguet and Dandliker) may still be consulted with advantage, while W. Oechsli's Lehrbuch fur den Geschichtsunterricht in der Sekundarschule (Zurich, 1885), is very accurate and handy. Far more popular in style than any yet mentioned are J. Sutz's Schweizer-Geschichte fur das Volk erzahlt (La Chaux de Fonds, 1899), and A. Gobat, Histoire de la Suisse racontee au peuple (Neuchatel, 1900). A very attractive summary (including social and economical history) is given in H. Vulliety's La Suisse a travers les ages (Basel and Geneva, 1901). J. Heierli's Urgeschichte der Schweiz (Zurich, 1901) has superseded all earlier works (such as Heer) on prehistoric Switzerland. The authentic early history of the Confederation (seealso TELL, Tsc11uDI, and W1NKELRIED) is admirably told in W. Oechsli's Die Anfange der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (Zurich, 1891, also in French), as well as in the older work by A. Rilliet, Les Origines de la confederation suisse (2nd ed., Geneva and Basel, 1869). For the earlier medieval history (1273–1334) J. E. (1273–1334) E. Kopp's Geschichte der eidgenossischen Biinde (5 vols., Leipzig, Lucerne and Basel, 1845–1882) is a perfect storehouse of information, while the medieval political Swiss system in relation to the empire has been very clearly described by W. Oechsli in his article (published in vol. v., 189o, of Hilty's Politisches Jahrbuch) " Die Beziehungen der schweiz. Eidgenossenschaft zum Reiche bis zum Schwabenkrieg, 1499," while the same writer's article (published in vol. xiii., 1888, of the Jahrbuch fur schweizerische Geschichte) " Orte and Zugewandte," gives an admirable account of the relations of many small districts and towns to the Swiss Con-federation, as " allies," from the earliest times to 1798. The two following works trace certain phenomena throughout Swiss history —P. Schweizer, Geschichte der schweizerischen Neutralitat (Frauenfeld, 1895), and J. Schollenberger, Geschichte der schweizer. Politik (2 vols., Frauenfeld, 1906 and 1908). As to the more recent history of Switzerland (since. 1798) see, besides various articles in Hilty's Jahrbuch, C. Hilty, Offentliche Vorlesungen fiber die Helvetik (Bern, '878); W. Oechsli, Geschichte der Schweiz im xix. Jahrhundert (vol. i., Leipzig, 1903, extends from 1798 to 1813) ; F. Burckhardt, Die schweizerische Emigration, 1798–1901 (Basel, '908); B. van Muyden, La Suisse sous le pacte de 1815 (2 vols., 1815–1838, Lausanne, 1890–1891) ; G. H. Dufour, Der Sonderbunds-Krieg and die Ereignisse von 1856 in Neuenburg (Basel, 1876; also in French, Paris, '876); G. Grote, Seven Letters concerning the Politics of Switzerland (1847, enlarged ed., London, 1876) ; T. Curti, Die schweizerischen Volksrechte, 1848–1900 (Bern, 1900) ; J. Schollenberger, Die Schweiz seit 1848 (Berlin, 1908); and the blue-book (London, 1848) entitled Correspondence Relative to the Affairs of Switzerland, with the following volumes of memoirs by Swiss statesmen: A. P. Segesser, Fiinf and vierzig Jahre im luzernischen Staatsdienst, 1841–1887 (Bern, 1887) ; J. C. Kern, Souvenirs politiques,1838–1883 (Bern, '887) ; and Numa Droz, Etudes et portraits politiques (Geneva, 1895), as well as lives of others. For the history of Switzerland in the 19th century see T. Curti, Geschichte der Schweiz im xix. Jahrhundert (Neuchatel, 1902), and the work entitled La Suisse au siecle (3 vols., Lausanne, 1899–1900; also issued in German). The following works are very useful for various departments of Swiss history: Genealogisches Handbuch zur schweizer Geschichte (in course of publication since 1900 at Zurich); P. Ganz, Geschichte der heraldischen Kunst in der Schweiz im xii. and xiii. Jahrhundert (Frauenfeld, '899); E. Schulthess, Die Steidle- and Landes-Siegel der Schweiz (Zurich, 1853) ; P. Kiipfer's Armorial des villes suisses (120 shields, Basel, 1885) ; A. Gautier, Les Armoiries et Us couleurs de la confederation et des cantons suisses (2nd ed., Geneva and Basel, 1879) ; and L. Tobler's Schweizerische Volkslieder (2 vols., Frauenfeld, 1882–1884; many historical ballads, texts with introductions). The best historical atlas is the Historisch-geographischer Atlas der Schweiz by J. C. Vogelin, G. Meyer von Knonau and G. von Wyss (new ed., Zurich, 187o), while L. Poirier-Delay and F. Mullhaupt's Historischer Atlas der Schweiz (Bern, 1898), and J. S. Gerster's small maps (Zurich, 1886) are also useful. There is a set of small Swiss historical maps in one sheet (No. 25) in Droysen's Allgemeiner historischer Atlas (Bielefeld, 1886), and a single general one (No. 44) in R. L. Poole's Historical Atlas of Modern Europe (Oxford,19o2). For the pre-1798 constitution of Switzerland see J. Simler, De Helvetiae republics (Zurich 1576; also in German and French), and Abraham Stanyan's An Account of Switzerland (London, 1714). The best and most recent works on the existing Swiss constitution of 1874 and its history are the large volume by W. Burckhardt, Kommentar der schweiz. Bundesverfassung von 1874 (Bern, 1905), and the smaller one by J. Schollenberger, Bundesverfassung der Schweiz. Eidgenossenschaft. Kommentar mit Einleitung (Berlin, 1905), while the same author's Das Bundesstaatsrecht der schweiz. Geschichte and System (Berlin, 1902) and his Grundriss der Staatsund Verwalti.ngsrechts der schweiz. Kantone (2 vols., Zurich, 1898–1899) are clear, and, especially the last-named, very useful as to cantonal matters. In English there is nothing better than J. M. Vincent's Government in Switzerland (New York and London, 1900), for the work by F. O. Adams and C. D. Cunningham is not very satisfactory, though better in its French edition (Basel and Geneva, 189o) than in its original English shape (London, 1889). The decisions of the Swiss Federal Tribunal as to Swiss constitutional law are collected (up to the end of 1902) in L. R. von Salis's Schweizerisches Bundesrecht (2nd ed., 5 vols., Bern, 1903–1904), while H. Ryffel's Die schweizer. Landsgemeinden (Zurich, 1904) and T. Curti's Die schweizer. Volksrechte (Bern, 1900) touch on special sides of the subject. See, too, COMMUNE (Swiss) and REFERENDUM AND INITIATIVE. Many of the older works are still worth consulting, such as those by Snell (1839–1844), Stettler (1847), Ullmer (1862–1866), Pfaff (187o), Bluntschli (2nd ed., 1875), Meyer (1875–1878), Dubs (1878), Orelli (1885), and Blumer (latest ed., vol. i., 1891; vols. ii. and iii., 1880-1887). There are also useful articles in Furrer's and Reichesberg's dictionaries. J. J. Blumer's Staatsund Rechtsgeschichte der schweiz. Demokratieen (2 vols., St Gall, 1850–1858) deals collectively with the old democratic cantons—Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Glarus, Zug and Appenzell—and is still very useful for local history; the special works as to the constitutional history of other cantons are mentioned in the articles relating to them. A general theoretical work on federal constitutions in general is L. le Fur's Etat Federal et Confederation d'etats (Paris, 1896), vol. i. of a new German edition of which (prepared by the author with the help of P. Posener) appeared at Breslau in 1902; this is more up to date than E. A. Freeman's Federal Government (new ed. of vol. i., London, 1893), or than J. B. Westerkamp's Staatenbund and Bundesstaat (Leipzig, 1900). There is no really satisfactory general ecclesiastical history of Switzerland before the Reformation, though monographs abound, and much material has been collected in the Zeitschrift fur Schweizerische Kirchengeschichte (Stans, from 1907). E. E. Gelpke's Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz (2 vols., Bern, 1856–1861) is now out of date, and only includes the early portion of the period (it is written from a Protestant standpoint), while vol. ii. of B. Fleischlin's Studien and Beitrage zur schweizer. Kirchengeschichte (Lucerne, 1902–1903) includes the period 800 to 1520, but is written from a strong Romanist point of view. As to the early history consult E. Egli's Die christlichen Inschriften der Schweiz von iv–ix. Jahrhundert (Zurich, 1895), and his Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz bis auf Karl den Grossen (Zurich, 1893) ; S. Guyer, Die christlichen Denkmetler des ersten Jahrtausends in der Schweiz (Leipzig, '907); A. Liitolf, Die Glaubensboten der Schweiz vor St Gallus (Lucerne, 1871); and E. F. Gelpke, Die christliche Sagengeschichte der Schweiz (Bern, 1862). As to the medieval saints in Switzerland see E. A. Stuckelberg, Geschichte der Reliquien in der Schweiz (2 vols., Zurich and Basel, 1902 and 1908), and his Die schweiz. Heiligen des Mittelalters (Zurich, 1903), and J. Genoud's Les Saints de la Suisse frangaise (new ed., 2 vols., Fribourg, 1897). For the documentary history of some of the medieval Swiss dioceses see Regesta episcoporum constantiensium, edited by P. Ladewig and T. Muller (2 vols., from 596 to 1383, as yet published, Innsbruck, 1895 and 1905) ; M. Besson, Recherches sur les origines des eveches de Geneve, Lausanne, et Sion (Fribourg, 1906), and L. Stouff, Le Pouvoir temporal des eveeques de Bale (2 vols., Paris, 1891). E. E. von Mi linen's Helvetia sacra (2 vols., Bern, 1858 and 1861) gives the succession of the various bishops, abbots, provosts, &c., but requires bringing up to date. For the medieval Swiss monasteries we have Die Regesten der Archive in der schweiz. Eidgenossenschaft (edited by T. von Mohr; 2 vols., Coire, 1851–1854), though it refers only to a few monasteries, for which it is indispensable, while Arnold Nuscheler's Die Gotteshduser der Schweiz (3 pls., Zurich, 1864–1873, continued by the author and others in the Geschichtsfreund and Argovia, complete index issued as an appendix to the Anzeiger fur schweizerische Geschichte, 1900) is most valuable and useful. Some of the great monasteries have histories of their own, such as Einsiedeln (q.v.), Engelberg (q.v.), and Muri, the last by Pater M. Kiem, Geschichte der Benedictiner-Abtei Muri (2 vols., Stans, 1888 and 1891). Two monographs may be mentioned: R. G. Bindschedler, Kirchliches Asylrecht and Freistatten in der Schweiz (Stuttgart, 1906), and Augusta Steinberg, Studien zur Geschichte der Juden in der Schweiz wdhrend des Mittelalters (Zurich, 1903). For the Reformation and later times consult (on the Protestant side), besides biographies, &c., of Calvin and Zwingli (qq. v.), E. Bloesch, Geschichte der schweizerischreformierten Kirchen (2 vols., Bern, 1898–1079); and W. Hadorn, Geschichte des Pietismus in der schweiz. reform. Kirchen (Constance, 1901), and the same author's Kirchengeschichte der ref ormierten Schweiz (since 1906). F. Meyer's work, Die evangelische Gemeinde in Locarno (2 vols., Zurich, 1836), treats of an important event of that period. The Romanist standpoint is presented in vols. iii. and iv. (1904 sc~q.) of Fleischlin's work mentioned above, and also in J. G. Mayers Das Conzil von Trient and die Gegenreformation in der Schweiz (2 vols., Stans, 1901 and 1903). For more modern days the best book, especially from the constitutional side, is C. Gareis and P. Zorn, Staat und Kirche in der Schweiz (2 vols., Zurich, 1877–1878), which tells the story down to the date of publication. Special subjects are treated of in M. Kothing, Die Bisthumsverhandlungen der schweizerisch-konstanzischen Di6zesanstdnde von 1803–1862 (Schwyz, 1863) ; F. Troxler, Der Kulturkampf von 1863–1888 (Bienne, 1889) ; Ch. Woeste, Histoire du Culturkampf en Suisse, 1871–1886 (Brussels, 1887, Romanist work) ; and P. Gschwind, Geschichte der Entstehung der chrislkatholischen Kirche der Schweiz (vol. i. appeared at Basel in 1904). The work by A. Buehi entitled Die katholische Kirche in der Schweiz (Munich, 1902) gives a full and authorized account of the present state of the Roman Catholic Church in Switzerland. c. Literature.—For the Swiss medieval Minnesingers see Karl Bartsch, Die schweizer Minnesinger (Frauenfeld, 1887, texts, with introductions) ; and for popular ballads, historical or not, L. Tobler, Schweizerische Volkslieder (2 vols., Frauenfeld, 1882–1884, texts, with notes and introductions). In general consult J. Bachtold, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur in der Schweiz (Frauenfeld, 1892) ; E. H. Gauliieur, Etudes sur l'histoire litteraire de la Suisse francaise, prticulierement clans la seconde moitie du xriii"te siecle (Paris, 1856); Godet, Histoire litteraire de la Suisse romande (2nd ed., Neuchatel and Paris, 1895); H. E. Jenny, Die Alpendichtung der deutschen Schweiz (Bern, 19o5); J. C. Morikofer, Die schweizerische Literatur des Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1861); F. Rausch, Geschichte der Literatur des rhato-romanischen Volkes (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1870) ; Virgile Rossel, Histoire litteraire de la Suisse romande (2 vols., Geneva and Paris, 1889–1891); R. Weber, Die poetische Nationalliteratur der deutschen Schweiz (3 vols., Glarus, 1866–1867). For the more recent Swiss writers see the literary sections of the work entitled La Suisse au xix'"e siecle, vol. ii. ch. 4 (Lausanne, 1889–1900), and the biographers of the several writers noted under the separate articles. (W. A. B. C.)
End of Article: BIBLIOGRA PH

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