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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 690 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BIOGRAPHIES.—HUlskamp, Papst Pius IX. in seinem Leben and Wirken (2nd ed., Munster, 1870); Legge, Pius IX. (London, 2 vols., 1872) ; Gillet, Pie IX., sa vie et les actes de son pontificat (Paris, 1877) ; Shea, Life and Pontificate of Pius IX. (New York, 1877) ; Trollope, Life of Pius IX. (London, 2 vols., 1877) ; F. v. Dellinger " Pius IX." in his Kleine Schriften, ed. Reusch (Stuttgart, 1890), p. 558 sqq.); Stepischnegg, Papst Pius IX. and seine Zeit (2 vols., Vienna, 1879); Wappmansperger, Leben and Wirken des Papstes Pius IX. (Regensburg, 1879) ; Pougeois, Histoire de Pie IX., son pontifical et son siecle (6 vols., Paris, 1877—1886) ; Fr. Nielsen, The History of the Papacy in the Nth Century, translated under the direction of A. F. Mason, vol. ii. (London, 1906). For his work as sovereign of the papal states, see F. v. Dellinger, Kirche and Kirchen, Papsttum and Kirchenstaat (Munich, 1861); M. Brosch, Geschichte des Kirchenstaates, vol. ii. (Gotha, 1882) ; A. F. Nurnberger, Papsttum and Kirchenstaat (3 vols., Mainz, 1897—1900) ; C. Mirbt " Die Geschichtschreibung des vatikanischen Konzils," in the Historische Zeitschrift, lot. Bd. (3. Folge, 5 Bd.) 1908, p. 529-600. SouRcas.—Acta Pia IX. (4 vols., Rome, 1854 sqq.); Acta sanctae sedis (Rome, 1865 sqq.). A selection of the documents for the history of Pius IX. will be found in C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums and des romischen Katholicismus (2nd ed., Tubingen, L901), §§ 422-442, PP. 361-390. (C. M.)
End of Article: BIOGRAPHIES
BIOGRAPHY (from the Gr. (3ios, life, and yp&4 , wri...

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