See also:town of
See also:Mesopotamia, in the
See also:Aleppo vilayet, altitude 1170 ft., built on a
See also:limestone cliff 400 ft. high on the
See also:bank of the
See also:Euphrates . Pop. about 1o,000, three-quarters Moslem . It is situated at one of the most important crossings of the Euphrates, where there was, in
See also:ancient times, a
See also:bridge of boats, and is now a
See also:ferry on the road from Aleppo to Urfa, Diarbekr and
See also:Mosul . Birejik corresponds actually to
See also:Apamea, which
See also:lay opposite Zeugma, and commanded the bridge with its strong
See also:castle (Kala Beda) now much ruined . The place seems to have had a pre-Seleucid existence as Birtha, a name which revived under
See also:rule (we hear of the emperor Julian resting there on his
See also:march into Mesopotamia, A.D . 363), and is preserved to this
See also:day . The ferry over an unusually deep and narrow
See also:part of the Euphrates has been used from
See also:time immemorial in the passage from North
See also:Syria to Haran (Charrae), Edessa and North Mesopotamia, and was second in importance only to that at
See also:Thapsacus, by which crossed the route to
See also:Babylon and South Mesopotamia . Birejik was the scene of an unusually cruel
See also:massacre and persecution of Armenians in 1895 .
SIR GEORGE CHRISTOPHER MOLESWORTH BIRDWOOD (1832–...
BIREN (or BUHREN), ERNST JOHANN (16go-1772)
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