See also:pen name of " Jeremias Gotthelf," was
See also:born on the 4th of
See also:October 1797 at
See also:Morat, where his
See also:father was pastor . In 1804 the home was moved to Utzenstorf, a
See also:village in the Bernese Emmenthal . Here
See also:grew up, receiving his early
See also:education and consorting with the boys of the village, as well as. helping his father to cultivate his glebe . In 1812 he went to
See also:complete his education at
See also:Bern, and in 182o was received as a pastor . In 1821 he visited the university of
See also:Gottingen, but returned home in 1822 to
See also:act as his father's assistant . On his father's
See also:death (1824) he went in the same capacity to Herzogenbuchsee, and later to Bern (1829) . Early in 1831 he went as assistant to the aged pastor of the village of Ltitzelfliih, in the Upper Emmenthal (between Langnau and
See also:Burgdorf), being soon elected his successor (1832) and marrying one of his
See also:grand-daughters (1833) . He spent the
See also:rest of his
See also:life there, dying on the 22nd of October 18541 and leaving three
See also:children (the son was a pastor, the two daughters married pastors) . His first
See also:work, the Bauernspiegel, appeared in 1837 . It purported to be the life of Jeremias Gotthelf, narrated by himself, and this name was later adopted by the author as his pen name . It is a living picture of Bernese (or, strictly speaking, Emmenthal) village life, true to nature, and not attempting to
See also:gloss over its defects and failings . It is written (like the rest of his
See also:works) in the Bernese dialect of the Emmenthal, though it must be remembered that Bitzius was not (like
See also:Auerbach) a
See also:peasant by
See also:birth, but belonged to the educated classes, so that he reproduces what he had seen and learnt, and not what he had himself personally experienced .
See also:book was a
See also:great success, as it was a picture of real life, and not of fancifully beribboned 18th-century villagers . Among his later tales are the
See also:Leiden and Freuden eines Schulmeisters (1838-1839), Uli der Knecht (1841), with its continuation, Uli der
See also:Richter (1849), Anne Babi Jow¢ger (1843-1844), Kathi die Grossmutter (1847), Die Kdserei in der Vehfreude (1850), and the Erlebnisse eines Schuldenbauers (1854) . He published also several volumes of shorter tales . One slightdrawback to some of his writings is the
See also:echo of
See also:political controversies, for Bitzius was a Whig and strongly opposed to the
See also:Radical party in the
See also:canton, which carried the
See also:day in 1846 . Lives by C .
See also:Manuel, in the Berlin edition of Bitzius's works (Berlin, 1861), and by J . Ammann in vol. i . (Bern, . 1884) of the Sammlung Bernischer Biographien . His works were issued in 24 vols. at Berlin, 1856-1861, while to vols., giving the
See also:original text of each
See also:story, were issued at Bern, 1898-1900 (edition not to be completed) . (W . A .
BIVOUAC (a French word generally said to have been ...
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