See also:plank or long narrow piece of
See also:timber . The word comes into various compounds to describe boards used for
See also:special purposes, or
See also:objects like boards (
See also:board, ironing-board, sounding-board,
See also:chess-board, cardboard, back-board,
See also:notice-board, scoring-board) . The phrase " to keep one's name on the boards," at Cambridge University, signifies to remain a member of a
See also:college; at
See also:Oxford it is " on the books." In
See also:bookbinding, pasteboard covers are called boards . Board was early used of a table, hence such phrases as "
See also:bed and board," " board and lodging "; or of a gaming-table, as in the phrase " to sweep the board," meaning to
See also:pocket all the stakes, hence, figuratively, to carry all before one . The same meaning leads to " Board of
See also:Trade," "
See also:Government Board," &c . From the meaning of border or side, and especially
See also:ship's side, comes "
See also:sea-board," meaning sea-
See also:coast, and the phrases " aboard " (Fr. abord), " over-board," " by the board "; similarly "
See also:weather-board," the side of a ship which is to
See also:ward; " larboard and starboard " (the former of uncertain origin,
See also:Mid . Eng. laddeboard or latheboard; the latter meaning " steering side," O . Eng. steorbord, the
See also:rudder of early
See also:ships working over the steering side), signifying (to one
See also:standing at the stern and looking forward) the
See also:left and right sides of the ship respectively . BOARDING-
See also:HOUSE, a private house in which the proprietor provides board and lodging for paying guests . The position of a
See also:guest in a boarding-house differs in
See also:law, to some extent, on the one
See also:hand from that of a lodger in the ordinary sense of the
See also:term, and on the other from that of a guest in an
See also:inn . Unlike the lodger, he frequently has not the exclusive occupation of particular rooms . Unlike the guest in an inn, his landlord has no
See also:lien upon his
See also:property for
See also:rent or any other
See also:debt due in respect of his board (
See also:Thompson v .
See also:Lacy, 1820,3 B. and Ald . 283) . The landlord is under an
See also:obligation to take reasonable care for the safety of property brought by a guest into his house, and is liable for damages in case of
See also:breach of this obligation (
See also:Scarborough v . Cosgrove, 1905, 2 K.B . 803) . Again, unlike the innkeeper, a boarding-house keeper does not hold himself out as ready to receive all travellers for whom he has accommodation, for which they are ready to pay, and of course he is entitled to get rid of any guest on giving reasonable notice (see Lamond v .
See also:Richard, 1897, I Q.B . 541, 548) . What is reasonable notice depends on the terms of the contract; and, subject thereto, the course of payment of rent is a material circumstance (see LANDLORD AND
See also:TENANT) . Apparently the same implied
See also:warranty of fitness for habitation at the commencement of the tenancy which exists in the case of furnished lodgings (see LODGER AND LODGINGS) exists also in the case of boarding-houses; and the guest in a boarding-house, like a lodger, is entitled to all the usual and necessary conveniences of a dwelling-house . The law of the
See also:United States is similar to English law . Under the French
See also:Civil, claims for subsistence furnished to a debtor and his
See also:family during the last
See also:year of his
See also:life by boarding-house keepers (maitres de pension) are privileged over the generality of moveables, the
See also:privilege being exerciseable after legal expenses, funeral expenses, the expenses of the last illness, and the wages of servants for the year elapsed and what is due for the current year (
See also:art .
2101 (5)) . Keepers of taverns (aubergistes) and hotels (hoteliers) are responsible for the goods of their guests—the committal of which to their custody is regarded as adeposit of
See also:necessity (
See also:depot necessaire) . They are95 liable for the loss of such goods by
See also:theft, whether by servants or strangers, but not where the loss is due to force majeure (arts . 1952–1954) . Their liability for
See also:money and
See also:bearer securities not actually deposited is limited to
See also:I000 francs (law of 18th of
See also:April 1889) . These provisions are reproduced in substance in the Civil Codes of
See also:Quebec (arts . 1814, 1815, 1994, 2006) and of St
See also:Lucia (art . 1889) . In Quebec, boarding-house keepers have a lien on the goods of their guests for the value or price of any
See also:food or accommodation furnished to them, and have also a right to sell their baggage and other property, if the amount remains unpaid for three months, under conditions similar to those imposed on innkeepers in England (art . 1816 A; and see INNS AND INNKEEPERS); also in the Civil Code of St Lucia (arts . 1578, 1714, 1715) . (A .
W . R.) BOARDING-OUT
See also:SYSTEM, in the English poor law, the boarding-out of
See also:orphan or deserted
See also:children with suitable
See also:foster-parents . The practice was first authorized in 1868, though for many years previously it had been carried out by some boards of guardians on their own initiative . Boarding-out is governed by two orders of the Local Government Board, issued in 1889 . The first permits guardians to board-out children within their own union, except in the metropolis . The second governs the boarding-out of children in localities outside the union . The sum payable to the foster-parents is not to exceed 4S. per week for each
See also:child . 'The system has been much discussed by authorities on the administration of the poor law . It has been objected that few working-men with an
See also:average-sized family can afford to devote such an amount for the
See also:maintenance of each child, and that, therefore, boarded-out children are better off than the children of the
See also:independent (Fawcett,
See also:Pauperism) . Working-class guardians, also, do not favour the system, being suspicious as to the disinterestedness of the foster-parents . On the other hand, it is argued that from the economic and educational point of view much better results are obtained by boarding-out children; they are given a natural life, and when they grow up they are without effort merged in the general population (
See also:Mackay, Hist . Eng .
Poor Law) . See also POOR LAW . The " boarding-out " of lunatics is, inScotland, a
See also:part of the lunacy administration . It has also been successfully adopted in Belgium .
BOAR (0. Eng. bar; the word is found only in W. Ger...
GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN (1801–1.831)
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