BONIFACE VIII . (Benedetto Gaetano),
See also:pope from 1294 to 1303, was
See also:born of
See also:family at Anagni, studied
See also:canon and
See also:law in Italy and possibly at
See also:Paris . After being appointed to canonicates at
See also:Todi (
See also:June 126o) and in France, he became an
See also:advocate and then a
See also:notary at the papal
See also:court . With
See also:Cardinal Ottoboni, who was to aid the
See also:Henry III., against the bishops of the baronial party, he was besieged in the Tower of
See also:London by the rebellious
See also:earl of
See also:Gloucester, but was rescued by the future
See also:Edward I., on the 27th of
See also:April 1267 . Created cardinal deacon in 1281, and in 1291 cardinal
See also:priest (SS . Sylvestri et Martini), he was entrusted with many
See also:missions and became very influential in the Sacred
See also:College . He helped the ineffective Celestine V. to abdicate, and was him-self chosen pope at Naples on the 24th of
See also:December 1294 . Contrary to
See also:custom, the election was not made unanimous, probably because of the hostility of certain French cardinals . Celestine attempted to
See also:rule in extreme monastic poverty and humility; not so Boniface, who ardently asserted the lordship of the papacy over all the kingdoms of the
See also:world . He was crowned at Rome in
See also:January 1295 with
See also:great pomp . He planned to pacify the West and then recover the
See also:Land from the infidel; but during his nine years' reign, so far from being a peacemaker, he involved the papacy itself in a series of controversies with leading
See also:powers . Avarice, lofty claims and frequent exhibitions of arrogance made him many foes .
The policy of supporting the interests of the
See also:house of
See also:Anjou in
See also:Sicily proved a
See also:grand failure . The attempt to build up great estates for his family made most of the Colonna his enemies . Until 1303 he refused to recognize
See also:Albert of
See also:Austria as the rightful German king . Assuming that he was overlord of Hungary, he declared that its
See also:crown should fall to the house of Anjou . He humbled
See also:Eric VI. of Denmark, but was unsuccessful in the attempt to try Edward I., the conqueror of Scotland, on the
See also:charge of interfering with a papal
See also:fief; for parliament declared in 1301 that Scotland had never been a fief of Rome . The most noted conflict of Boniface was that with
See also:Philip IV. of France . In 1296, by the bull Clericis laicos, the pope forbade the levying of taxes, however disguised, on the
See also:clergy without his consent . Forced to recede from this position, Boniface canonized
See also:Louis IX . (1297) . The hostilities were later renewed; in 1302 Boniface himself drafted and published the indubitably genuine bull Unam sanctam, one of the strongest official statements of the papal
See also:prerogative ever made . The
See also:weight of opinion now tends to deny that any
See also:part of this much-discussed document sale the last
See also:sentence bears the marks of an infallible utterance . The French
See also:vice-chancellor Guillaume de
See also:Nogaret was sent to arrest the pope, against whom
See also:grave charges had been brought, and bring him to France to be deposed by an
See also:oecumenical council .
See also:heresy has usually been dismissed as a
See also:slander; but
See also:recent investigations make it probable, though not quite certain, that Boniface privately held certain Averroistic tenets, such as the denial of the immortality of the soul . With Sciarra Colonna, Nogaret surprised Boniface at Anagni, on the 7th of
See also:September 1303, as the latter was about to pronounce the sentence of excommunication207 against the king . After a nine-
See also:hours' truce the palace was stormed, and Boniface was found lying in his
See also:bed, a
See also:cross clasped to his
See also:breast; that he was sitting in full regalia on the papal
See also:throne is a
See also:legend . Nogaret claimed that he saved the pope's
See also:life from the vengeful Colonna . Threatened, but not maltreated, the pope had remained three days under arrest when the citizens of Anagni freed him . He was conducted to Rome, only to be confined in the Vatican by the Orsini . He died on the rith or 12th of
See also:October 1303, not eighty-six years old, as has commonly been believed, but perhaps under seventy, at all events not over seventy-five . " He shall come in like a
See also:fox, reign like a lion, die like a
See also:dog," is a gibe wrongly held to be a prophecy of his unfortunate predecessor .
See also:Dante, who had become embittered against Boniface while on a
See also:mission in Rome, calls him the "
See also:Prince of the new
See also:Pharisees " (Inferno, 27, 85), but laments that " in his
See also:Vicar Christ was made a cap tive," and was "mocked a second
See also:time" (Purgatory, 20, 87 f.) . AurnoRITIEs.—Digard, Faucon and
See also:Les Registres de Boniface VIII (Paris, 1884 ff.) ; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, vol. ii . (2nd ed.,
See also:Freiburg, 1883), 1037–1062; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, vol. iii . (3rd ed.,
See also:Leipzig, 1897), 291-300, contains an elaborate bibliography; J .
See also:des spateren Mittelalters (
See also:Munich, 1903), 206-232; H . Finke, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz VIII . (Munster, 1902) is dreary but epoch-making; Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, Jahrgang 166, 857-869 (Berlin, 1904) ; R . Scholz, Die Publizistik zur Zest Philipps des Schonen and Bonifaz VIII . (
See also:Stuttgart, 1903) ; K .
See also:Wendt, " War Bonifaz VIII. ein Ketzer?" in von
See also:Sybel's Historische Zeitschrift, vol. xciv . (Munich, 1905), 1-66 .
See also:Special literature on Unam Sanctam: C . Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (2nd ed.,
See also:Tubingen, 1901), 148 f.; Kirchenlexikon, xii . (1901), 229-240, an exhaustive discussion; H . Finke, 146-190; J . H .
See also:Robinson, Readings in European
See also:History, vol. i . (Boston, 1904), 346 if . On Clericis laicos:
See also:Gee and
See also:Hardy, Documents Illustrative of English
See also:Church History (London, 1896), 87 if . (W . W .
SAINT BONIFACE (680-754)
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