BOTANY (from Gr. l3or6v17, plant; ,66vicety, to graze) , thescience which includes everything
See also:relating to the
See also:kingdom, whether in a living or in a fossil state . It embraces a
See also:consideration of the
See also:external forms of plants—of their anatomical structure, however minute—of the functions which they perform —of their arrangement and
See also:classification--of their distribution over the globe at the
See also:present and at former epochs—and of the uses to which they are subservient . It examines the plant in its earliest state of development, and follows it through all its stages of progress until it attains maturity . It takes a comprehensive view of all the
See also:plants which cover the
See also:earth, from the minutest organism, only visible by the aid of the microscope, to the most gigantic productions of the tropics . It marks the relations which subsist between all members of the plant
See also:world, including those between existing groups and those which are known only from their fossilized remains preserved in the rocks . We
See also:deal here with the
See also:history and
See also:evolution of the science . The plants which adorn the globe more or less in all countries must necessarily have attracted the
See also:attention of mankind from the earliest times . The science that treats of them
See also:dates back to the days of Solomon, who " spake of trees, from the
See also:cedar of
See also:Lebanon to the
See also:hyssop on the
See also:wall." The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable
See also:life, and as to the
See also:change of plants into animals . About 300 years before Christ
See also:Theophrastus wrote a History of Plants, and described about 500
See also:species used for the treatment of diseases . Dioscorides, a Greek writer, who appears to have flourished about the
See also:time of
See also:Nero, issued a
See also:work on Materia Medica . The elder Pliny described about a thousand plants, many of them famous for their medicinal virtues .
See also:Asiatic and Arabian writers also took up this subject .
Little, however, was done in the science of botany, properly so called, until the 16thcentury of the Christian era, when the revival of learning dispelled the darkness which had long hung over
See also:Europe .
See also:Otto Brunfels, a physician of
See also:Bern, has been looked upon as the restorer of the science in Europe . In his
See also:Herbarium, printed at Strassburg (1530-1536), he gave descriptions of a large number of plants, chiefly those of central Europe, illustrated by beautiful woodcuts . He was followed by other writers,—Leonhard Fuchs, whose Historia Stirpium (
See also:Basel, 1542) is worthy of
See also:special note for its excellent woodcuts; Hieronymus Bock, whose Kreutter Buch appeared in 1539; and
See also:Turner, "The
See also:Father of
See also:English Botany," the first
See also:part of whose New Herbal, printed in English, was issued in 1551 . The descriptions in these early
See also:works were encumbered with much medicinal detail, including speculations as to the virtues of plants . Plants which were strikingly alike were placed together, but there was at first little attempt at systematic classification . A crude
See also:system, based on the external appearance of plants and their uses to man, was gradually evolved, and is well illustrated in the Herbal, issued in 1597 by
See also:Gerard (1545–1612), a
See also:barber-surgeon, who had a
See also:garden in
See also:Holborn, and was a keen student of
See also:British plants . One of the earliest attempts at a methodical arrangement of plants was made in Florence by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519–1603), who is called by
See also:Primus verus systematicus . In his work De Plantis, published at Florence in 1583, he distributed the 1520 plants then known into fifteen classes, the distinguishing characters being taken from the fruit . John Ray (1627–1705) did much to advance the science of botany; and was also a
See also:good zoologist . He promulgated a system which may be considered as the
See also:dawn of the " natural system " of the present
See also:day (Ray, Methodus Plantarum, 1682) He separated flowering from flowerless plants, and divided the former into
See also:Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons . His orders (or " classes ") were founded to some extent on a correct idea of the
See also:affinities of plants, and he far outstripped his contemporaries in his enlightened views of arrangement .
See also:year 167o Dr Robert Morison (162o-1683), the first
See also:professor of botany at
See also:Oxford, published a systematic arrangement of plants, largely on the lines previously suggested by Caesalpinus . He divided them into eighteen classes, distinguishing plants according as they were woody or herbaceous, and taking into account the nature of the
See also:flowers and fruit . In 1690 Rivinus 2 promulgated a classification founded chiefly on the forms of the flowers . J . P. de Tournefort3 (1656–1708), who about the same time took up the subject of vegetable taxonomy, was long at the
See also:head of the French school of botany, and published a systematic arrangement in 1694-1700 . He described about 8000 species of plants, and distributed them into twenty-two classes, chiefly according to the
See also:form of the corolla, distinguishing herbs and under-shrubs on the one
See also:hand from trees and shrubs on the other . The system of Tournefort was for a long time adopted on the continent, but was ultimately displaced by that of Carl von Linne, or Linnaeus (q.v.; 1707-1778) . The system of Linnaeus was founded on characters derived from the stamens and pistils, the so-called sexual
See also:organs of the flower, and hence it is often called the sexual system . It is an artificial method, because it takes into account only a few marked characters in plants, and does not propose to unite them by natural affinities . It is an
See also:index to a department of the
See also:book of nature, and as such is useful to the student . It does not aspire to any higher character, and although it cannot be looked upon as a scientific and natural arrangement, still it has a certain facility of application which at once commended it . It does not of itself give the student a view of the true relations of plants, and by leading to the
See also:discovery of the name of a plant, it is only a stepping-
See also:stone to the natural system .
Linnaeus himself claimed nothing higher for it . He says—" Methodi Naturalis fragmenta studiose inquirenda sunt . Primum et ultimum hoc in botanicis desideratum est . Natura non facit saltus . Plantae omnes utrinque affinitatem monstrant, uti territorium in mappa geographica." Accordingly, besides his artificial index, he also promulgated fragments of a natural method of arrangement . The Linnean system was strongly supported by
See also:Smith (1759–1828), who adopted it in his English
See also:Flora, and who also became possessor of the Linnean collection . The system was for a long time the only one taught in the
See also:schools of Britain, even after it had been discarded by those in France and in other
See also:continental countries . The foundation of botanic gardens during the 16th and 17th centuries did much in the way of advancing botany . They were at first appropriated chiefly to the cultivation of medicinal plants . This was especially the case at
See also:universities, where medical schools existed . The first botanic garden was established at
See also:Padua in 1545, and was followed by that of Pisa . The garden at
See also:Leiden dates from 1577, that at
See also:Leipzig from 1579 .
Gardens also early existed at Florence andBologna . The
See also:Montpellier garden was founded in 1592, that of
See also:Giessen in 1605, of Strassburg in 1620, of
See also:Altdorf in 1625, and of
See also:Jena in 1629 . The Jardin
See also:des Plantes at
See also:Paris was, established in 1626, and the
See also:Upsala garden in 1627 . The botanic garden at Oxford was founded in 1632 . The garden at
See also:Edinburgh was founded by Sir Andrew
See also:Balfour and Sir Robert
See also:Sibbald in 167o, and, under the name of the Physic Garden, was placed under the superintendence of James
See also:Sutherland, afterwards professor of botany in the university . The garden at
See also:Kew dates from about 1730, when
See also:prince of
See also:Wales, obtained a long lease of Kew
See also:House and its gardens from the Capel
See also:family . After his
See also:death in 1751 his widow, Princess
See also:Augusta of Saxe-
See also:Gotha, showed
See also:interest in their scientific development, and in 1759 engaged William
See also:Aiton to establish a Physic Garden . The garden of the Royal
See also:Dublin Society at Glasnevin was opened about 1796; that of Trinity
See also:College, Dublin, in 1807; and that of
See also:Glasgow 1 Morison, Praeludia Botanica (1672); Plantarum Historia Universalis (168o) . Rivinus (
See also:paterno nomine Bachmann, Introductio generolis in Rem Herbariam (Lipsiae, 1690) . 3 Tournefort, Elemens de botanique (1694); Institutiones Rei Herbariae (1700).in 1818 . The
See also:Madrid garden dates from 1763, and that of
See also:Coimbra from 1773 .
See also:Jean Gesner (1709–1790), a Swiss physician and botanist, states that at the end of the 18th century there were 1600 botanic gardens in Europe .
A new era dawned on botanical classification with the work of
See also:Laurent de
See also:Jussieu (1748–1836) . His
See also:Bernard de Jussieu, had adopted the principles of Linnaeus's Fragmenta in his arrangement of the plants in the royal garden at the Trianon . At an early age Antoine became botanical demonstrator in the Jardin des Plantes, and was thus led to devote his time to the science of botany . Being called upon to arrange the plants in the garden, he necessarily had to consider the best method of doing so, and, following the lines already suggested by his uncle, adopted a system founded in a certain degree on that of Ray, in which he embraced all the discoveries in organography, adopted the simplicity of the Linnean
See also:definitions, and displayed the natural affinities of plants . His Genera Plantarum, begun in 1978, and finally published in 1789, was an important advance, and formed the basis of all natural classifications . One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778–1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the
See also:comparative study of the form and development of organs (
See also:morphology), not of their functions (physiology) . His Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis was intended to embrace an arrangement and description of all known plants . The work was continued after his death, by his son Alphonse de Candolle, with the aid of other eminent botanists, and embraces descriptions of the genera and species of the orders of Dicotyledonous plants . The system followed by de Candolle is a modification of that of Jussieu . In arranging plants according to a natural method, we require to have a thorough knowledge of structural and morphological botany, and hence we find that the advances made in these departments have materially aided the efforts of systematic botanists . Robert
See also:Brown (1773–1858) was the first British botanist to support and
See also:advocate the natural system of classification . The publication of his Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (in 181o), according to the natural method, led the way to the adoption of that method in the universities and schools of Britain .
In 1827 Brown announced his important discovery of the distinction between
See also:Angiosperms and
See also:Gymnosperms, and the philosophical character of his work led A. von Humboldt to refer to him as " Botanicorum facile princeps." In 183o John
See also:Lindley published the first edition of his Introduction to the Natural System, em-bodying a slight modification of de Candolle's system . From the year 1832 up to 1859 great advances were made in systematic botany, both in Britain and on the continent of Europe . The Enchiridion and Genera Plantarum of S . L . Endlicher (1804-1849), the Prodromus of de Candolle, and the Vegetable Kingdom (1846) of J . Lindley became the guides in systematic botany, according to the natural system . The least satisfactory part of all these systems was that concerned with the
See also:lower plants or Cryptogams as contrasted with the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams) . The development of the compound microscope rendered possible the accurate study of their life-histories; and the publication in 1851 of the results of Wilhelm Hofmeister's researches on the comparative
See also:embryology of the higher Cryptogamia
See also:shed a
See also:flood of
See also:light on their relationships to each other and to the higher plants, and supplied the basis for the distinction of the great groups Thallophyta,
See also:Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Phanerogamae, the last named including Gymnospermae and Angiospermae . A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in
See also:America, is that of Bentham and
See also:Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862–1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination . The arrangement is a modification of that adopted by the de Candolles . Another system differing somewhat in detail is that of A . W .
Eichler (Berlin, 1883), a modified form of which was elaborated by Dr Adolf Engler of Berlin, the
See also:principal editor of Die naturliche Pflanzenfamilien . The study of the anatomy and physiology of plants did not keep
See also:pace with the advance in classification . Nehemiah
See also:Grew and his contemporary
See also:Malpighi were the earliest discoverers in the department of plant anatomy . Both authors laid an account of the results of their study of plant structure before the Royal Society of
See also:London almost at the same time in 1671 . Malpighi's
See also:complete work, Anatome Plantarum, appeared in 1675 and Grew's Anatomy of Plants in 1682 . For more than a
See also:hundred years the study of
See also:internal structure was neglected . In 1802 appeared the Traite d'anatomie et de physiologie vegetale of C.F . B. de Mirbel (1776–1854), which was quickly followed by other publications by Kurt
See also:Sprengel, L . C . Treviranus (1779–1864), and others . In 1812 J . J .
P . Moldenhawer isolated cells by maceration of tissues in
See also:water . The work of F . J . F . Meyen and H. von Mohl in the
See also:middle of the 19th century placed the study of plant anatomy on a more scientific basis . Reference must also be made to M . J . Schleiden (1804–1881) and F . Unger (1800–1870), while in K . W. von Nageli's investigations on molecular structure and the growth of the
See also:cell membrane we recognize the origin of
See also:modern methods of the study of cell-structure included under cytology (q.v.) . The work of Karl Sanio and Th .
See also:Hartig advanced knowledge on the structure and development of tissues, while A. de Bary's Comparative Anatomy of the Phanerogams and Ferns (1877) supplied an admirable presentation of the facts so far known . Since then the work has been carried on by Ph.
See also:van Tieghem and his pupils, and others, who have sought to correlate the large mass of facts and to find some general underlying principles (see PLANTS: Anatomy of ) . The subject of fertilization was one which early excited attention . The idea of the existence of
See also:separate sexes in plants was entertained in early times, long before separate male and
See also:female organs had been demonstrated . The production of dates in
See also:Egypt, by bringing two kinds of flowers into contact, proves that in very remote periods some notions were entertained on the subject . Female date-palms only were cultivated, and
See also:wild ones were brought from the
See also:desert in
See also:order to fertilize them .
See also:Herodotus informs us that the Babylonians knew of old that there were male and female date-trees, and that the female required the concurrence of the male to become fertile . This fact was also known to the Egyptians, the Phoenicians and other nations of
See also:Asia and Africa . The Babylonians suspended male clusters from wild dates over the
See also:females; but they seem to have supposed that the fertility thus produced depended on the presence of small flies among the wild flowers, which, by entering the female flowers, caused them to set and ripen . The
See also:process was called palmification . Theophrastus, who succeeded Aristotle in his school in the 114th
See also:Olympiad, frequently mentions the sexes of plants, but he does not appear to have determined the organs of
See also:reproduction . Pliny, who flourished under
See also:Vespasian, speaks particularly of a male and female palm, but his statements were not founded on any real knowledge of the organs .
From Theophrastus down to Caesalpinus, who died atRome in 1603, there does not appear to have been any attention paid to the reproductive organs of plants . Caesalpinus had his attention directed to the subject, and he speaks of a halitus or emanation from the male plants causing fertility in the female . Nehemiah Grew seems to have been the first to describe, in a paper on the Anatomy of Plants, read before the Royal Society in
See also:November 1676, the functions of the stamens and pistils . Up to this
See also:period all was vague conjecture . Grew speaks of the attire, or the stamens, as being the male parts, and refers to conversations with Sir
See also:Thomas Millington, Sedleian professor at Oxford, to whom the
See also:credit of the sexual theory seems really to belong . Grew says that " when the attire or apices break or open, the globules or dust falls down on the seedcase or uterus, and touches it with a prolific virtue." Ray adopted Grew's views, and states various arguments to prove their correctness in the preface to his work on
See also:European plants, published in 1694 . In 1694 R . J .
See also:Camerarius, professor of botany and
See also:medicine at
See also:Tubingen, published a
See also:letter on the sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants . In 1703
See also:Morland, in a paper read before the Royal Society, stated that the
See also:farina . (pollen) is a congeries of seminal plants, one of which must be conveyed into every ovum or seed before it can become prolific . In this remarkable statement he seems to anticipate in part the discoveries afterwards made as to pollen tubes, and more particularly the
See also:peculiar views promulgated by Schleiden .
In 1711 E . F .Geoffroy, in a memoir presented to the Royal Academy at Paris, supported the views of Grew and others as to the sexes of plants . He states that the germ is never to be seen in the seed till the apices (anthers) shed their dust; and that if the stamina be cut out before the apices open, the seed will either not ripen, or be barren if it ripens . He mentions two experiments made by him to prove this—one by cutting off the staminal flowers in
See also:Maize, and the other by rearing the female plant of Mercurialis apart from the male . In these instances most of the flowers were abortive, but a few were fertile, which he attributes to the dust of the apices having been wafted by the
See also:wind from other plants . Linnaeus took up the subject in the inauguration of his sexual system . He first published his views in 1736, and he thus writes—" Antheras et stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio, Rayo, Camerario, Godofredo, Morlando, Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio, Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c., detectum, descriptum, et
See also:pro infallibili assumptum; nec ullum, apertis oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae
See also:flores, latere potest." He divided plants into sexual and asexual, the former being Phanerogamous or flowering, and the latter Cryptogamous or flowerless . In the latter division of plants he could not detect stamens and pistils, and he did not investigate the mode in which their germs were produced . He was no physiologist, and did not promulgate any views as to the embryogenic process . His followers were chiefly engaged in the arrangement and classification of plants, and while descriptive botany made great advances the physiological department of the science was neglected . His views were not, however, adopted at once by all, for we find
See also:Charles Alston stating arguments against them in his Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants .
Alston's observations were founded on what occurred in certain unisexual plants, such as Mercurialis,
See also:Hop and Bryony . The conclusion at which he arrives is that the pollen is not in all flowering plants necessary for impregnation, for fertile seeds can be produced without its influence . He supports parthenogenesis in some plants . Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730–1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782 . He was one of the first to point out the existence of certain cellular bodies in these plants which appeared to perform the functions of reproductive organs, and to them the names of antheridia and pistillidia were given . This opened up a new
See also:field of
See also:research, and led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries . The interesting observations of Morland, already quoted, seem to have been neglected, and no one attempted to follow in the path which he had pointed out . Botanists were for a long time content to know that the scattering of the pollen from the anther, and its application to the stigma, were necessary for the production of perfect seed, but the stages of the process of fertilization remained unexplored . The
See also:matter seemed involved in mystery, and no one attempted to raise the veil which hung over the subject of embryogeny . The general view was, that the embryo originated in the ovule, which was in some obscure manner fertilized by the pollen . In 1815 L . C .
Treviranus, professor of botany in
See also:Bonn, roused the attention of botanists to the development of the embryo, but although he made valuable researches, he did not add much in the way of new information . In 1823 G . B .
See also:Amici discovered the existence of pollen tubes, and he was followed by A . T . Brongniart and R . Brown . The latter traced the tubes as far as the nucleus of the ovule . These important discoveries mark a new epoch in embryology, and may be said to be the foundation of the views now entertained, which were materially aided by the subsequent elucidation of the process of cytogenesis, or cell-development, by Schleiden,
See also:Schwann, Mohl and others . The whole subject of fertilization and development of the embryo has been more recently investigated with great assiduity and zeal, as regards both cryptogamous and phanerogamous plants, and details must be sought in the various special articles . The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of
See also:orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which
See also:insects take in this
See also:function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann
See also:Muller, Federico Delpino and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth . One of the earliest workers at plant physiology was
See also:Stephen Hales .
In his Statical Essays (1727) he gave an account of numerous experiments and observations which he had made on the
See also:nutrition of plants and the
See also:movement of
See also:sap in them . He showed that the gaseous constituents of the air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves are the organs which elaborate the
See also:food; the importance of leaves in nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a
See also:short account of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work . The
See also:birth of modern chemistry in the work of J .
See also:Priestley and Lavoisier, at the close of the 18th century, made possible the scientific study of plant-nutrition, though
See also:Jan Ingenhousz in 1779 discovered that plants incessantly give out carbonic acid
See also:gas, but that the
See also:green leaves and shoots only exhale
See also:oxygen in sunlight or clear daylight, thereby indicating the distinction between assimilation of carbonic acid gas (photosynthesis) and respiration . N . T. de Saussure (1767–1845) gave precision to the science of plant-nutrition by use of quantitative methods . The subjects of plant nutrition and respiration were further studied by R . J . H . Dutrochet towards the middle of the century, and Liebig's application of chemistry to
See also:agriculture and physiology put beyond question the parts played by the atmosphere and the
See also:soil in the nutrition of plants . The phenomena of movements of the organs of plants attracted the attention of John Ray (f 693), who ascribed the movements of the
See also:leaf of
See also:Mimosa and others to alteration in temperature . Linnaeus also studied the periodical movements of flowers and leaves, and referred to the
See also:assumption of the
See also:night-position as the sleep-movement .
Early in the 19th century AndrewKnight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H. von Mohl and others contributed to the advance of this phase of plant physiology . Darwin's experiments in reference to the movements of climbing and
See also:twining plants, and of leaves in insectivorous plants, have opened up a wide field of inquiry as to the relation between plants and the various external factors, which has attracted numerous workers . By the work of
See also:Julius Sachs and his pupils plant physiology was established on a .cientific basis, and became an important part of the study of plants, for the development of which reference may be made to the article PLANTS: Physiology . The study of form and development has advanced under the name " morphology," with the progress of which are associated the names of K . Goebel, E . Strasburger, A. de Bary and others, while more recently, as cytology (q.v.), the intimate study of the cell and its contents has attracted considerable attention . The department of
See also:geographical botany made rapid advance by means of the various scientific expeditions which have been sent to all quarters of the globe, as well as by individual effort (see PLANTS: Distribution) since the time of A. von Humboldt . The question of the mode in which the floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to important speculationsby such eminent botanical travellers as Charles Darwin, Sir J . D . Hooker, A . R .
See also:Wallace and others .
The connexion between
See also:climate and vegetation has also been studied . Quite recently under the name of " Ecology " or " Oecology " the study of plants in relation to each other and to their environment has become the subject of systematic investigation . The subject of palaeontological botany (see
See also:PALAEOBOTANY) has been advanced by the researches of both botanists and geologists . The nature of the climate at different epochs of the earth's history has also been determined from the character of the flora . The works of A . T . Brongniart, H . R . Goeppert and W . P . Schimper advanced this department of science . Among others who contributed valuable papers on the subject may be noticed Oswald Heer (1809–x883), who made observations on the
See also:Miocene flora, especially in Arctic regions; Gaston de Saporta (1823–1895), who examined the
See also:Tertiary flora; Sir J .
W .Dawson and
See also:Leo Lesquereux, and others who reported on the
See also:Canadian and
See also:American fossil plants . In Great Britain also W . C . William-son, by his study of the structure of the plants of the
See also:measures, opened up a new
See also:line of research which has been followed by Bertrand Renault, D . H .
See also:Scott, A . C . Seward and others, and has led to important discoveries on the nature of
See also:extinct groups of plants and also on the phylogeny of existing groups . Botany may be divided into the following departments: I . Structural, having reference to the form and structure of the various parts, including (a) Morphology, the study of the general form of the organs and their development—this will be treated in a series of articles dealing with the great subdivisions of plants (see ANGIOSPERMS, GYMNOSPERMS, PTERIDOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA,
See also:LICHENS, FUNGI and
See also:BACTERIOLOGY) and the more important organs (see
See also:STEM, LEAF,
See also:ROOT, FLOWER, FRUIT); (b) Anatomy, the study of internal structure, including minute anatomy or
See also:histology (see PLANTS: Anatomy) . 2 .
Cytology (q.v.), the intimate structure and behaviour of the cell and its contents—protoplasm, nucleus, &c . 3 . Physiology, the study of the life-functions of the entire plant and its organs (see PLANTS: Physiology) . 4 . Systematic, the arrangement and classification of plants .(see PLANTS: Classification) . 5 . Distribution or Geographical Botany, the consideration of the distribution of plants on the earth's
See also:surface (see PLANTS: Distribution) . 6 . Palaeontology, the study of the fossils found in the various strata of which the earth is composed (see PALAEOBOTANY) . 7 . Ecology or Oecology, the study of plants in relation to each other and to their environment (see PLANTS: Ecology) . Besides these departments which deal with Botany as a science, there are various applications of botany, such as forestry (see FORESTS AND FORESTRY), agriculture (q.v.), horticulture (q.v.), and materia medica (for use in medicine; see the separate articles on each plant) .
(A . B .
JOSEPH BOSWORTH (1789–1876)
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