BOUILLON , formerly the seat of a dukedom in the
See also:Ardennes, now a small
See also:town in the Belgian province of Luxemburg . Pop . (1904) 2721 . It is most picturesquely situated in the valley under the rocky
See also:ridge on which are still the very well preserved remains of the
See also:castle of Godfrey of Bouillon (q.v.), the
See also:leader of the first crusade . The town, 690 ft. above the
See also:sea, but lying in a
See also:basin, skirts both
See also:banks of the
See also:river Semois which is crossed by two bridges . The stream forms a
See also:round and almost encircles the castle, from which there are beautiful views of the sinuous valley and the opposite well-wooded heights . The whole effect of the grim castle, the silvery stream and the verdant woods makes one of the most striking scenes in Belgium . In the 8th and 9th centuries Bouillon was one of the castles of the
See also:counts of Ardenne and Bouillon . In the loth and I Ith centuries the
See also:family took the higher titles of dukes of
See also:Lorraine and Bouillon . These dukes all
See also:bore the name of Godfrey (
See also:Godefroy) and the fifth of them was the
See also:great crusader . He was the son of Eustace, count of
See also:Boulogne, which has led many commentators into the error of saying that Godfrey of Bouillon was
See also:born at the French
See also:port, whereas he was really born in the castle of Baisy near Genappe and
See also:Waterloo . His
See also:mother was
See also:Ida d'Ardenne,
See also:sister of the
See also:fourth Godfrey (" the Hunchback "), and the successful defence of the castle when a mere youth of seventeen on her behalf was the first feat of arms of the future conqueror of Jerusalem .
See also:medieval fortress, strong by
See also:art as well as position before the invention of
See also:artillery, has since undergone numerous sieges . In
See also:order to undertake the crusade Godfrey sold the castle of Bouillon to the
See also:bishop of Liege, and the title of duke of Bouillon remained the appendage of the bishopric till 1678,. or for 58o years . The bishops appointed " chatelains," one of whom was the celebrated "
See also:Wild Boar of the Ardennes,"
See also:William de la Marck . His descendants made themselves quasi-
See also:independent and called themselves princes of
See also:Sedan and dukes of Bouillon, and they were even recognized by the
See also:king of France . The possession of Bouillon thenceforward became a
See also:constant cause of strife until in 1678
See also:Louis XIV. garrisoned it under the treaty of
See also:Nijmwegen . From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'
See also:Auvergne, one of whom (
See also:viscount of
See also:Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591
See also:Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her
See also:race . In 1676 the duke of Crequy seized it in the name of Louis XIV., who in 1678 gave it to Godefroy
See also:Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne, whose descendants continued in possession till 1795 . Bouillon remained French till 1814, and
See also:Vauban called it " the
See also:key of the Ardennes." In 176o the elder
See also:Rousseau established here the famous
See also:press of the Encyclopaedists . In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extra-ordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the
See also:navy, the
See also:cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the
See also:ancient duchy of Bouillon . The
See also:people of Bouillon freely recognized him, and Louis XVIII. was well pleased with the arrangement, but the congress assigned Bouillon to the
See also:Netherlands .
See also:Napoleon III. on his way to Germany after Sedan slept one
See also:night in the little town, which is a convenient centre for visiting that battlefield .
MARQUIS DE FRANCOIS CLAUDE AMOUR BOUILLE (1739-1800...
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