See also:common Teutonic word for anything bent2 (O . Eng. bo3a; cf . O .
See also:Sax. and O.H.G.
See also:bogo, M.H.G. boge, Mod . Ger. bogen; from O . Teat.
See also:bug- of beugan, Mod . Ger. biegen, to
See also:bend) . Thus it is found in
See also:English compound words, e.g . "
See also:elbow," "
See also:rainbow," "
See also:net," " bow-window," " bow-knot," "
See also:saddle-bow," and by itself as the designation of a
See also:great variety of
See also:objects . The Old English use of " bow," or
See also:stone-bow, for " arch," now obsolete, survives in certain names of churches and places, e.g . Bow
See also:church (St Mary-in-Arcubus) in Cheapside, and Stratford-le-Bow (the "Stratford-atte-Bowe" of
See also:Chaucer) . "Bow," however, is still the designation of objects so various as an appliance for
See also:shooting arrows (see
See also:ARCHERY), a necktie in the
See also:form of a bow-knot (i.e. a
See also:double-looped knot), a
See also:ring or hoop forming a handle (e.g. the bow of a
See also:watch), certain
See also:instruments or tools consisting of a bent piece of
See also:wood with the ends
See also:drawn together by a
See also:string, used for drilling, turning, &c., in various crafts, and the stick strung with horsehair by means of which the strings of instruments of the
See also:family are set in vibration .
It is with this last that the
See also:present article is solely concerned . Bow in
See also:modern bow (Fr. archet; Ger . Bogen; Ital. arco) consists of five parts, i.e. the " stick," the
See also:screw or "
See also:ferrule," the "
See also:nut," the " hair " and the "
See also:head." The stick, in high-grade bows, is made of
See also:Pernambuco wood (Caesalpinia brasiliensis), which alone combines the requisite lightness,
See also:elasticity and power of resistance; for the cheaper bows
See also:oak is used, and for the double-
See also:bass bow
See also:beech . A
See also:rich in colouring
See also:matter and straight in the
See also:grain is selected, and the stick is usually cut from a templet so as to obtain the accurate taper, which begins about 4' in. from the nut, decreasing according to
See also:regular proportions from $ in. at the screw to % at the back of the head . The stick is cut absolutely straight and parallel along its whole length with the fibre of the wood; it is then bent by
See also:heat until it is slightly
See also:convex to the hair and has assumed the elegant cambrure first given to it by
See also:Francois Tourte (1747-1835) . This
See also:process requires the greatest care, for if the
See also:fibres be not heated right through, they offer a continual resistance to the
See also:curve, and return after a
See also:time to the rigid 1 It is not likely that any remains of it now exist . 2 " Bow," the forepart or head of a
See also:ship, must be distinguished from this word . It is the same word, and pronounced in the same way, as " bough," an
See also:arm or
See also:limb of a
See also:tree, and represents a common Teutonic word, seen in O . Eng. bog, Ger . Bug,
See also:shoulder, and is cognate with Gr . 76Xu5, forearm . The sense of " shoulder" of a ship is not found in O .
Eng. bog. but was probably borrowed from Dutch or Danish . " Bow," an inclination of the head or
See also:body, though pronounced as " bough," is of the same origin as bow." to bend, straight
See also:line, a defect often observed in cheap bows . The sticks are now of either cylindrical or octagonal section, and are lapped or covered with gold
See also:thread or
See also:leather for some inches beyond the nut in
See also:order to afford a
See also:firm grip . The length of the stick was definitely and finally fixed by Francois Tourte at 29'34 to 29.528 in . The centre of gravity in a well-balanced violin bow should be at 19 cm . (72 to 79 in.) from the nut;' in the violoncello bow the hair
See also:measures from 6o to 62 cm . (24 to 25 in.), and the centre of gravity is at from 175 to 18o mm . (7 to 71 in.) from the nut . In consequence of the flexure given to the stick, Tourte found it necessary to re-adjust the proportions and relative height of head and nut, in order to keep the hair at a satisfactory distance from the stick, and at the necessary
See also:angle in attacking the strings so as to avoid contact between stick and strings in bowing . In order to counterbalance the consequent increased
See also:weight of the head and to keep the centre of gravity nearer the
See also:hand, Tourte loaded the nut with
See also:metal inlays or ornamental designs . The screw or ferrule, at the cylindrical end of the stick held by the hand, provides the means of tightening or loosening the tension of the hair . This screw, about 31 in. long, hidden within the stick, runs through the
See also:eye of another little screw at right angles to it, which is firmly embedded in the nut .
The nut is a wooden
See also:block at the screw end of the stick, the
See also:original purpose of which was to keep the hair at a proper distance from the stick and to provide a secure
See also:attachment for the hair . The whole nut slides up and down the stick in a groove in answer to the screw, thus tightening or relaxing the tension of the hair . In the nut is a little cavity or chamber, into which the knotted end of the hair is firmly fixed by means of a little
See also:wedge, the hair being then brought out and flattened over the front of the nut like a ribbon by the pressure of a
See also:flat ferrule . The
See also:mother-of-pearl slide which runs along a mortised groove further protects the hair on the outside of the nut . Bows having these attachments of ferrule and slide, added by Tourte at the instigation of the violinist Giovanni Battista Viotti, were known as archets a recouvrements . The hair is chosen from the best
See also:white horsehair, and each of the 150 to 200 hairs which compose the
See also:half-inch wide ribbon of the bow must be perfectly cylindrical and smooth . It is bought by the pound, and must be very carefully sorted, for not more than one hair in ten is perfectly cylindrical and
See also:fit for use on a high-grade bow . Experience determines the right number of hairs, for if the ribbon be too thick it hinders the vibration of the strings; if too thin the
See also:friction is not strong enough to produce a
See also:tone .
See also:Fetis gives 175 to 250 as the number used in the modern bow' and
See also:Julius Kuhlmann 110 to 120.' Tourte attached the greatest importance to the hairing of the bow, and bestowed quite as much
See also:attention upon it as upon the stick . He subjected the hair to the following process of cleansing: first it was thoroughly scoured with
See also:soap and
See also:water to remove all grease, then steeped in
See also:bran-water, freed from all heterogeneous matter still adhering to it, and finally rinsed in pure water slightly blued . When passed between the fingers in the direction from
See also:root to tip, the hair glides smoothly and offers no resistance, but passed in the opposite direction it feels rough, suggesting a regular succession of minute projections . The
See also:outer epithelium or sheath of the hair is composed of minute scales which produce a succession of infinitesimal shocks when the hair is drawn across the strings; the force and uniformity of these shocks, which produce series of vibrations of equal persistency, is considerably heightened by the application of rosin to the hair .
The particles of rosin cling to the scales of the epithelium, thus accentuating the projections and theenergy of the attack or " bite " upon the strings . With use, the scales of the epithelium
See also:wear off, and then no matter how much rosin is applied, the bow fails to elicit musical sounds—it is then " played out " and must be re-haired . The organic construction of horsehair makes it necessary, in hairing the bow, to
See also:lay the hairs in opposite directions, so that the up and down strokes may be equal and a pure and even tone obtained . Waxed
See also:silk is
See also:round both ends of the hair to form a strong knot, which is afterwards covered with melted rosin and hardens with the hair into a solid mass . The head, I in. long and in. wide at the
See also:plate, is cut in one piece with the stick, an operation which requires delicate workmanship; otherwise the head is liable to snap at this point during a sforzando passage . The head has a chamber and wedge contrivance similar to that of the nut, in which the other end of the hair is immovably fixed . The hair on the
See also:face of the head is protected by a metal or ivory plate . The
See also:model bow here described, elaborated by Francois Tourte as long ago as between 1775 and 178o according to Fetis,4 or between 1785 and 1790 according to Vidal,' has not since been surpassed . ' See F . J . Fetis,
See also:Stradivari, pp . 120-121 (
See also:Paris, 1856) .
2 Fetis, op. cit. p . 123 . , J . Ruhlmann,Die Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente (
See also:Brunswick, 1882), p . 143 . Fetis, op. cit. p . 119 . ' Antoine Vidal,
See also:Les Instruments a archet (Paris, 1876-1878), tome i. p . 269 . That the violin and the bow form one inseparable whole becomes evident when we consider the
See also:history of the forerunners of the
See also:viol family: without the bow the ancestor of the violin would have remained a guitar; the bow would not have reached its present state of perfection had it been required only for instruments of the
See also:rebec and
See also:vielle type . As soon as the possibilities of the violin were realized, as a
See also:solo instrument capable, through the agency of the bow, of expressing the emotions of the performer, the perfecting of the bow was prosecuted in
See also:earnest until it was capable of responding to every shade of delicate thought and feeling . This accounts in a measure for the protracted development of the bow, which, although used long before the violin had been evolved, did not reach a state of perfection at the hands of Tourte until more than a century and a half after the Cremona
See also:master had given us the violin .
The question of the origin of the bow still remains a matter of conjecture . Itsappearance in western
See also:Europe seems to have coincided with the
See also:conquest of Spain by the Moors in the 8th century, and the consequent impetus their
See also:superior culture gave to arts and sciences in the south-west of Europe . We have, however, no well-authenticated
See also:representation of the bow before the 9th century in Europe; the earliest is the bow illustrated along with the
See also:Lyra Teutonica by
See also:Gerbert,s the representation being taken from a MS. at the monastery of St Blaise, dating in his opinion from the 9th century . On the other hand,
See also:art of the 9th and 11th centuries' reveals acquaintance with a bow far in advance of most of the crude contemporary specimens of western Europe . The bow undoubtedly came from the East, and was obviously borrowed by the Greeks of
See also:Asia Minor and the
See also:Arabs from a common source—probably India, by way of
See also:Persia . The earliest representation of a bow yet discovered is to be found among the
See also:fine frescoes in one of the chapels of the monastery of Bawit5 in
See also:Egypt . The mural paintings in question were the
See also:work of many artists, covering a considerable
See also:period of time . The only non-religious subject depicted is a picture of a youthful
See also:Orpheus, assigned by
See also:Jean Cledat to some date not later than the 8th century A.D., but more probably the work of a 6th -century artist . Orpheus is holding an instrument, which appears to be a rehab, against his
See also:chin, in the
See also:act of bowing and stopping the strings . The bow is similar in shape to one shown in the Psalter of Labeo
See also:Leipzig, loth century, mentioned farther on . On
See also:Indian sculptures of the first centuries of our era, such as the Buddhist stupas of Amaravati, the risers of the topes of Jamal-Garhi, in the
See also:district of
See also:Afghanistan (both in the
See also:British Museum), on which stringed instruments abound, there is no bow . The bow has remained a
See also:primitive instrument in India to this
See also:day; a
See also:Hindu tradition assigns its invention to Ravanon, a
See also:king of
See also:Ceylon, and the instrument for which it was invented was called
See also:ravanastron; a primitive instrument of that name is still in use in Hindustan.' F .
J . Fetis,10 Antoine Vidal,"
See also:Allen,12 and others have given the question some
See also:consideration, and readers who wish to pursue the matter farther are referred to their
See also:works . There is thus no absolute
See also:proof of the existence of the bow in primitive times . The earliest bow known in Europe was associated with the
See also:rebab (q.v.), the most widely used bowed instrument until the 12th century . The development of this 8 .De
See also:Cantu et Musica Sacra (1774), tome ii. pl. xxxii . No . 18; the MS. has since perished by
See also:fire . ' See, for an
See also:illustration of the bowed instrument on one of the sides of a Byzantine ivory
See also:casket, 9th century, in the Carrand Collection, Florence, A . Venturi, Gallerie Nazionali Italiane, iii . (Rome, 1897), plate, p . 263 ; and Add . MS. r9, 9,352, British Museum, Greek Psalter, dated 1066 .
8 See Jean Cledat, " Le Monastere et la necropole de Baouit," in Mem. de l'Inst.
See also:franc. d'archeol. orient. du Caire, vol. xii . (1904),
See also:chap. xviii. pl. lxiv . (2) ; also Fernand Cabrol, Dict. d'archeol. chrelienne, s.v . " Baouit." For an illustration, see Sonnerat, Voyage aux Indes orientales (Paris, 18o6), vol.i. p . 182 . 10 Op. cit. pp . 4-10 . " Op. cit. vol. i. p . 3 and pl. ii . 12 Edward Heron-Allen, Violin-making as it was and is (
See also:London, 1884), pp . 37-42,
See also:figs . 5-1o .
instrument can be traced with some degree of certainty, but it is quite impossible to decide at what date or in whatplace the use of the bow was introduced . The bow
See also:developed very slowly in Europe and remained a crude instrument as long as it was applied to the rebab and its hybrids . Its progress became marked only from the time when it was applied to the almost perfect guitar (q.v.), which then became the guitar
See also:fiddle (q.v.), the immediate forerunner of the viols . The first improvement on the primitive arched bow was to provide some sort of handle in a straight line with the hair or string of the bow, such as is shown in the MS.
See also:translation of the Psalms by Labeo Notker,
See also:late loth century, in the University library, Leipzig.' The length of the handle was often greatly exaggerated, perhaps by the
See also:fancy of the artist . Another handle (see Bodleian Library MS., N.E.D . 2, 12th century) was in the form of a hilt with a knob, possibly a screw-nut, in which the arched stick and the hair were both fixed . The first development of importance influencing the technique of stringed instruments was the attempt to find some
See also:device for controlling the tension of the hair . The contrivance known as cremaillere, which was the first step in this direction, seems to have been foreshadowed in the bows drawn in a
See also:quaint MS. of the 14th century in the British Museum (
See also:Sloane 3983, fol . 43 and 13) on astronomy . Forming an obtuse angle with the handle of the bow is a contrivance shaped Drawn from the ivory cover of like a
See also:spear-head which presumably the Lothair Psalter, by permission served some useful purpose; if it of
See also:Brooke. had notches (which would be too small to show in the
See also:drawing), and the hair of the bow was finished with a
See also:loop, then we have here an early example of a device for controlling the tension . Another bow in the same MS. has two round knobs on the stick which may be assumed to have served the same purpose . A very early example of the cremaillere bow (fig .
1) occurs on a carved ivory plate ornamenting the binding of the fine Carolingian MS . Psalter of Lothair (A.D . 825), for some time known as the
See also:Ellis and White Psalter, but now in the library of Sir Thomas Brooke at Armitage
See also:House . The carved figure of King
See also:David, assigned from its characteristic pose and the treatment of the drapery to the 11th century, holds a stringed The artist has added a bow with cremaillere attachment, which is startling if the
See also:carving be accurately placed in the 11th century . The earliest representation of a cremaillere bow, with this exception,
See also:dates from the 15th century, according to
See also:Viollet-le-Duc, who merely states that it was copied from a
See also:painting.3 Fetis (op. cit. p . 117) figures a cremaillere bow which he styles " Bassani, 1680 . " Sebastian Virdung draws a bow for a tromba marina, with the hair and stick bound together with waxed
See also:cord . The hair appears to be kept more or less tense by means of a wedge of wood or other material forced in between stick and hair, the latter bulging slightly at this point like the string of an archery bow when the arrow is in position; this contrivance may be due to the fancy of the artist . The invention of a movable nut propelled by a screw is ascribed to the elder Tourte (fig . 2); had we not this information on the best authority (Vuillaume and Fetis), it might be imagined that some of the bows figured by
See also:Mersenne,4 e.g. the bass viol bow KL (p . 184), and another KLM (p . 192), had a movable nut and screw; the nut is clearly drawn astride the stick as in the modern bow .
Mersenne explains (p . 178) the construction of the bow, which consists of three parts: the bois, bdton or
See also:brin, the soye, and the demi-roue or hausse . The
See also:term "half-
See also:wheel" clearly indicates that the
See also:base of the nut was cut round so as to fit round the stick . In the
See also:absence of any allusion to such ingenious mechanism as that of screw and nut, we must infer that the drawing is misleading and that the very decided button was only meant for an ornamental finish to the stick . We are informed further that la soye was in reality hairs from the
See also:horse or some other animal, of which from 8o to
See also:loo were used for each bow . The up-stroke of the bow was used on the weak beats, 2, 4, 6, 8, and the down-stroke on the strong beats, 1, 3, 5, 7 (p . 185) . The same practice prevailed in England in 1667, when Christopher
See also:Simpson wrote the Division Viol . He gives information concerning the construction of the bow in these words: " the viol-bow for division should be stiff but not heavy . The length (betwixt the two places where the hairs are fastened at each end) about seven-and-twenty inches . The nut should be
See also:short, the height of it about a
See also:finger's breadth or a little more " (p . 2) .
As soon asCorelli (1653–1713) formulated the principles of the technique of the violin, marked modifications in the construction of the bow became noticeable .
See also:Tartini, who began during the second
See also:decade of the 18th century to
See also:gauge the capabilities of the bow, introduced further improvements, such as a lighter wood for the stick, a straight
See also:contour, and a shorter head, in order to give better equilibrium . The Tourtes,
See also:father and son, accomplished the
See also:rest . After Francois Tourte,thefollowing makers are the most esteemed: J . B . Vuillaume, who was directly inspired by Tourte and rendered an inestimable service to violinists by working out on a scientific basis the empirical taper of the Tourte stick, which was found in all his bows to conform to strict ratio; Dominique Peccate, apprenticed to J . B . Vuillaume;
See also:Henry, 1812–187o, who signs his -iA 1N11111M1MM`1` W444 C$ Drawn from bows the
See also:property of
See also:William E .
See also:Hill & Sons . instrument, a rotta of
See also:peculiar shape, which occurs twice in other Carolingian
See also:MSS.2 of the 9th century, but copied here without understanding, as though it were a
See also:lyre with many strings . 1 MS . 774, fol .
30 . For an illustration of it seeHyacinth Abele, Die Violine, ihre Geschichte and ihr Bau (
See also:Neuburg-a-D., 1874), p1 . 5, No . 7 . 2 See
See also:CROWD for fig. from the Bible of
See also:Charles le Chauve; and also King David in the Bible of St Paul extra muros, Rome (photo-graphic facsimile by J . O . Westwood,
See also:Oxford, 1876).name and " Paris " on the stick near the nut; Jacques Lefleur, 1760-1832 ; Francois Lupot, 1774-1837, the first to line the angular cutting of the nut, where it slides along the stick, with a plate of a See Dictionnaire raisonne du mobilier
See also:francais (Paris, 1871), vol. ii.
See also:part iv. pp . 265 D. and 266 note . ' Marin Mersenne, L'Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636-1637), pp . 184 and 192 . Vuillaume's
See also:diagram and explanation are reproduced by Fetis, op . Cit. pp .
125-128 . metal ;
See also:born 1808, who also signs his bows on the stick near the nut;
See also:Dodd of
See also:Richmond, the greatest English bow-maker, who was especially renowned for his violoncello bows, though his violin bows had the defect of being rather short . The violoncello bow is a little shorter than those used for violin and viola, and the head and nut are deeper . The
See also:models of double-bass bows in vogue at the beginning of the 19th century were the
See also:Dragonetti, maintaining the arch of the
See also:medieval bows, and the
See also:Bottesini, shaped and held like the violin bow; the former was held over-hand with the hair inclining towards the bridge, and was adopted by the Paris
See also:Conservatoire under Habeneck about 1830; the great artist himself sent over the model from London . Illustrations of both bows are given by Vidal (op. cit. pl. xviii.) . Messrs W . E . Hill & Sons probably possess the finest and most representative collection of bows in the
See also:world . (K . S.) BOWDICH, THOMAS EDWARD (1790-1824), English traveller and author, was born at
See also:Bristol in 1790 . In 1814, through his
See also:uncle, J . Hope-
See also:governor of the British Gold
See also:Coast Settlements, he obtained a writership in the service of the
See also:Company of Merchants and was sent to Cape Coast .
In 1817 he was sent, with two companions, to Kumasi on a
See also:mission to the king of
See also:Ashanti, and chiefly through his skilful
See also:diplomacy the mission succeeded in its
See also:object of securing British
See also:control over the coast natives (see ASHANTI: History) . In 1818 Bowdich returned to England, and in 18x9 published an account of his mission and of the study he had made of the barbaric
See also:court of Kumasi, entitled Mission from Cape Coast
See also:Castle to Ashantee, &c . (London, 1819) . His African collections he presented to the British Museum . Bowdich publicly attacked the management of the African
See also:committee, and his strictures were instrumental in leading the British
See also:government to assume
See also:direct control over the Gold Coast . From 1820 to 1822 Bowdich lived in Paris, studying
See also:mathematics and the natural sciences, and was on intimate terms with Cuvier, Humboldt and other savants . During his stay in France he edited several works on Africa, and also wrote scientific works . In 1822, accompanied by his wife, he went to
See also:Lisbon, where, from a study of historic MSS., he published An Account of the Discoveries of the Portuguese in . . .
See also:Angola and Mozambique (London, 1824) . In 1823 Bowdich and his wife, after some months spent in Madeira and Cape Verde Islands, arrived at Bathurst at the mouth of the
See also:Gambia, intending to go to Sierra Leone and thence explore the interior . But at Bathurst Bowdich died on the loth of
See also:January 1824 .
His widow published an account of his last
See also:journey, entitled Excursions in Madeira and
See also:Porto Santo . . . to which is added ... A Narrative of the Continuance of the Voyage to its Completion,' &c . (London, 1825) . Bowdich's daughter, Mrs
See also:Hale, republished in 1873, with an
See also:introductory preface, her father's Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee .
NATHANIEL BOWDITCH (1773-1838)
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