See also:art of attack and defence with the fists protected by padded gloves, as distinguished from pugilism, in which the
See also:bare fists, or some kind of
See also:light gloves affording little moderation of the
See also:blow, are employed . The
See also:ancient-Greeks used a sort of glove in practice, but, although far less formidable than the terrible caestus worn in serious encounters, it was by no means so mild an implement as the
See also:modern boxing-glove, the invention of which is traditionally ascribed to
See also:Jack Broughton (1705-1789), " the
See also:father of
See also:British pugilism." In any case gloves were first usedin his
See also:time, though only in practice, all prize-fights being decided with bare fists . Broughton, who was for years
See also:champion of England, also drew up the rules by which prize-fights were for many years regulated, and no doubt, with the help of the newly invented gloves, imparted instruction in .boxing to the
See also:young aristocrats of his
See also:day . The most popular teacher of the art was, however,
See also:Jackson (1769-1845), called "
See also:Gentleman Jackson," who was champion from 1795 to 1800, and who is credited with imparting to boxing its scientific principles, such as countering, accurate judging of distance in hitting, and agility on the feet . Tom
See also:Moore, the poet, in his
See also:Memoirs, asserted that Jackson " made more than a thousand a
See also:year by teaching sparring." Among his pupils was
See also:Byron, who, when chided for keeping
See also:company with a pugilist, insisted that Jackson's
See also:manners were " infinitely
See also:superior to those of the
See also:fellows of the
See also:college whom I meet at the high table," and referred to him in the following lines in Hints from Horace:— " And men unpractised in exchanging knocks Must go to Jackson are they dare to box." His rooms in Bond- Street were crowded with men of
See also:birth and distinction, and when the allied monarchs visited
See also:London he was entrusted with the management of a boxing
See also:carnival with which they were vastly pleased . In 1814 the Pugilistic
See also:Club, the
See also:meeting-place of the aristocratic sporting
See also:element, was formed, but the high-
See also:water mark of the popularity of boxing had been reached, and it declined rapidly, although throughout the
See also:country considerable
See also:interest continued to be manifested in prize-fighting . The
See also:sport of modern boxing, as distinguished from pugilism, may be said to date from the year 1866, when the public had become disgusted with the brutality and unfair practices of the professional " bruisers," and the
See also:laws against prize-fighting began to be more rigidly enforced . In that year the "
See also:Amateur Athletic Club " was founded, principally through the efforts of John G .
See also:Chambers (1843-1883), who, in conjunction with the 8th
See also:marquess of Queensberry, drew up a
See also:code of laws (known as the Queensberry Rules) which govern all glove contests in
See also:Great Britain, and were also authoritative in
See also:America until the adoption of the boxing rules of the Amateur Athletic Union of America . 'In 1867 Lord Queensberry presented cups for the British amateur championships at the recognized weights . For the
See also:history of pugilism in classic antiquity and an account of modern prize-fighting see PUGILISM . At
See also:present two kinds of boxing contests are in vogue, that for a limited number of rounds (as in the amateur championships) and that for endurance, in which the one who cannot continue the fight loses .
Endurance contests, which contain the essential element of the old prize-fights, are now indulged in only by professionals . Among amateurs boxing is far less popular than it' once was, owing to the importance placed uponbrute strength, and the prevailing ambition of the modern boxer to " knock out " his opponent, i.e. reduce him to a state of insensibility . Even in 3-
See also:round matches between gentlemen, in which points win, and there is therefore no need to knock an opponent senseless, it is nevertheless a
See also:common practice to strike a dazed and reeling adversary a heavy blow with a view to ending the
See also:battle at once . During the
See also:annual boxing competitions between
See also:Oxford and Cambridge more than
See also:half the bouts have been known to end in this manner . Undoubtedly the prettiest boxing is seen when two men proficient in the art indulge in a practice bout—or "sparring." Boxing is the art of hitting without getting
See also:hit . The boxers
See also:face each other just out of reach and balanced equally on both feet, the
See also:left from io to 20 in. in advance of the right . The left
See also:foot is planted
See also:flat on the
See also:floor, while the right
See also:heel is raised slightly from it . The left side of the
See also:body is turned a little towards the opponent and the right
See also:shoulder slightly depressed . When the hands are clenched inside the gloves the thumb is doubled over the second and third fingers to avoid a sprain when hitting . The general position of the guard is a
See also:matter of individual taste . In the " crouch," affected by many
See also:American professionals, the right
See also:hip is thrust forward and the body bent over towards the right, while the left
See also:arm is kept well stretched out to keep the opponent at a distance.- No
See also:master, how-ever, teaches a beginner any other than the upright position . Some boxers stand with the right foot forward, a practice common in the 18th century, which gives freer
See also:play with the right
See also:hand but is rather unstable .
A boxer should stand lightly on his feet, ready to advance orretreat on the instant, using
See also:short steps, advancing with the left foot first and retreating with the right . Attacks are either
See also:simple or secondary . Simple attacks consist in straight leads, i.e. blows aimed with or without preliminary feints, at some
See also:part of the opponent's body or
See also:head . All other attacks are either " counters " or returns after a guard or "
See also:block." A
See also:counter is a -lead carried out just as one is attacked, the
See also:object being to block (
See also:parry) the blow and
See also:land on the opponent at the same time . Counters are often carried out in connexion with a side-step, a slip or a crouch . In hitting, a boxer seeks to exert the greatest force at the instant of impact . Blows may be either straight, with or without the
See also:weight of the body behind them (" straight from the shouder " hits); jabs, short blows (usually with the left hand when at close quarters) ; hooks, or side-blows with bent arm; upper cuts (short swinging blows from beneath to the adversary's
See also:chin); chops (short blows from above) ; punches (usually at close quarters, with the right hand) ; or swings (round-arm blows, usually delivered with a partial twist of the body to
See also:augment the force of the blow) . Of the dangerous blows, which often result in a knock-out, or in seriously weakening an adversary, the following may be mentioned:--on the
See also:pit of the stomach, called the solar plexus, from the sensitive network of nerves situated there; a blow on the point of the chin, having a tendency slightly to paralyse the
See also:brain; a blow under the ear, painful and often resulting in partial helplessness; and one directly over the heart,
See also:kidney or
See also:liver . As a boxer is allowed ten seconds after being knocked down in which to rise, an experienced
See also:ring-fighter will drop on one
See also:knee when partially stunned, remaining in that position in
See also:order to recover until the
See also:referee has counted nine . Guarding is done with the arm or hand, either open or shut . If a blow is caught or stopped short it is called blocking, but a blow may also be shoved aside, or avoided altogether by slipping, i.e. moving the head quickly to one side, or by
See also:ducking and allowing the adversary's
See also:swing to pass harmlessly over the head . Still another method of avoiding a blow without guarding is to
See also:bend back the head or body so as narrowly to
See also:escape the opponent's glove .
The rules of the Amateur Boxing Association (founded 1884) contain the following provisions . " An amateur is one who has never competed for a
See also:money prize or staked
See also:bet with or against a professional for any prize, except with the
See also:express sanction of the A.B.A., and who has never taught, pursued or assisted in the practice of athletic exercises as a means of obtaining a livelihood." The ring shall be roped and between 12 and 24 ft. square . No spikes shall be worn on shoes . Boxers are divided into the following classes by weight:—Bantam, not exceeding 8 st . 4 lb (116 lb);
See also:Feather, not exceeding 9 st . (126 lb); Light, not exceeding 10 st . (140 lb) ;
See also:Middle, not exceeding rr st . 4 lb (158 lb); and Heavy, any weight above . There shall be two
See also:judges, a referee and a timekeeper . The votes of the judges decide the winner of a bout, unless they disagree, in which case the referee has the deciding
See also:vote . In case of doubt he may order an extra round of two minutes' duration . Each match is for three rounds, the first two lasting three minutes and the third four, with one minute
See also:rest between the rounds .
A competitor failing to come up at the
See also:call of time loses the match . When a competitor draws a bye he must box for a specified time with an opponent chosen by the judges . A competitor is allowed one assistant (second) only, and no advice or coaching during the progress of a round is permitted . Unless one competitor is unable to
See also:respond to the call of time, or is obliged to stop before the match is over, the judges decide the winner by points, which are for attack, comprising successful hits cleanly delivered, and defence, comprising guarding, slipping, ducking, counter-hitting and getting away in time to avoid a return . When the points are equal the decision is given in favour of the boxer who has done the most leading, i.e.351 has been the more aggressive . Fouls are hitting below the
See also:belt, kicking, hitting with the open hand, the side of the hand, the
See also:elbow or shoulder,
See also:wrestling or " roughing " on the
See also:ropes, i. e. unnecessary shouldering and jostling . The boxing rules of the American Amateur Athletic Association differ slightly from the British . The ring is roped but must be from 16 to 24 ft. square . Gloves must not be worn more than 8 oz. in weight . The recognized classes by weight are:
See also:Bantam, 105 lb and under; .Feather, 115 lb and under; Light, 135 lb and under; Welter, 143 lb and under; Middle, 158 lb and under; and Heavy, over 158 lb . The rules for officials and rounds are identical with the British, except that only in final bouts does the last round last four minutes . Two " seconds " are allowed .
The rules for points and fouls coincide with the British . The amateur rules are very strict, and any one who competes in a boxing contest of more than four rounds is suspended from membership in the Athletic Association . Glossary of terms not mentioned above :—Break away, to get away from the adversary, usually a command from the referee when the men clinch . Break ground, retire diagonally to right or left . Catch-weight, any weight . Corners, the opposite angles of the square " ring," in which the boxers rest between the rounds .
See also:Cross-counter, a blow in which the right or left arm crosses that of the adversary as he leads off; the arm is slightly curved to get round that of the opponent but is straightened at the moment of impact . Clinching, grappling after an
See also:exchange of blows; when breaking from a clinch one tries to
See also:pin the adversary's hands in order to prevent his hitting at close quarters .
See also:Drawing an opponent, enticing him by leaving an apparent opening into making an attack for which a counter is prepared . Fiddling, forward and back movements of the arms at the beginning of a round, a part of sparring for an opening . Foot-
See also:work, the manner in which a boxer uses his feet . In-fighting, boxing at very close quarters .
Mark, the pit of the stomach . Side-step, springing quickly to one side to avoid a blow, the
See also:movement being usually followed up by a counter attack . Timing, a blow delivered on the enemy's preparation of an attack of his own, but more quickly . See Boxing, by R . AIlansonWinn (Isthmian Library, London,1897) ; Boxing, by Wm . Elder (Spalding's Athletic Library, New
See also:York, 1902) (these two books are excellent for. the technicalities of boxing) . The article " Boxing," by B . Jno .
See also:Angle and G . W . Barroll, in the .
See also:Encyclopaedia of Sport; Boxing, by J .
C . Trotter (
See also:Oval Series, London, 1896) ;
See also:Fencing, Boxing and Wrestling, in the
See also:Badminton Library (London, 1892) .
BOX (Gr. irl or, Lat. buxus, box-wood; cf. 2r6Eir, ...
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