BOYCOTT , the refusal and incitement to refusal to have commercial or social dealings with any one on whom it is wished to bring pressure . As merely a
See also:form of " sending to
See also:Coventry " or (in W . E . Gladstone's phrase) " exclusive dealing," boycotting may be, from a legal point of view, unassailable, and as such has frequently been justified by its
See also:political inventors . But in practice it has usually taken the form of what is undoubtedly an illegal
See also:conspiracy to injure the
See also:property or business of another by unwarrantably putting pressure on all and sundry to withdraw from him their social or business inter-course . The word was first used in
See also:Ireland, and was derived from the name of Captain
See also:Cunningham Boycott (1832-1897),
See also:agent for the estates of the
See also:earl of
See also:Erne in Co . Mayo . For refusing in 188o to receive rents at figures fixed by the tenants, Captain Boycott had his
See also:life threatened, his servants compelled to leave him, his fences torn down, his letters intercepted and his
See also:food supplies interfered with . It took a force of 900 soldiers to protect the Ulster
See also:Orangemen (" Emergency Men ") who succeeded finally in getting in his crops . He wa.s hooted and mobbed in the streets, and hanged and burnt in effigy . The
See also:system of boycotting was an essential
See also:part of the Irish Nationalist " Plan of
See also:Campaign," and was dealt with under the Crimes
See also:Act of 1887 . The
See also:term soon came into
See also:English use, and was speedily adopted by the French, Germans, Dutch and Russians .
See also:United States this method of " persuasion " was taken up by the
See also:trade unions about 1886, an employer who refused their demands being brought to terms by a combination IV . I2to refuse to buy his product or do his
See also:work, or to
See also:deal with any who did . Various cases have occurred in
See also:America in which labour organizations have pronounced such a boycott against a
See also:firm; and its illegal nature has been established in the
See also:law-courts; notably in the case of the Bucks
See also:Company v . The
See also:American Federation of Labor (1907) in the Supreme
See also:Court of the
See also:district of
See also:Columbia, and in a suit against the Hatters' Union (
See also:February 1908) in the U.S . Supreme Court . A boycott has also been held by the U.S . Supreme Court to be a violation of the Sherman
See also:Trust law .
WILLIAM BOYCE (1710-1779)
ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON BOYD (1825—1899)
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