TYCHO BRAHE (1546-1601) , Danish astronomer, was
See also:born on the 14th of
See also:December 1546 at the
See also:family seat of Knudstrup in Scania, then a Danish province . Of
See also:noble family, he was early adopted by his
See also:uncle, Jorgen Brahe, who sent him, in
See also:April 1559, to study philosophy and rhetoric at
See also:Copenhagen . The punctual occurrence at the predicted
See also:August 21st, 1560, of a
See also:total solar eclipse led him to regard astronomy as " something divine "; he
See also:purchased the Ephemerides of Johann Stadius (3rd ed., 157o), and the
See also:works of
See also:Ptolemy in Latin, and gained some insight into the theory of the
See also:planets . Entered as a
See also:law-student at, the university of
See also:Leipzig in 1562, he nevertheless secretly pro8ecuted
See also:celestial studies, and began continuous observations with a globe, a pair of compasses and a "
See also:staff." He quitted Leipzig on the 17th of May 1565, but his uncle dying a
See also:month later, he repaired to
See also:Wittenberg, and thence to
See also:Rostock, where, in 1566, he lost his
See also:nose in a duel, and substituted an artificial one made of a copper alloy . In 1569 he matriculated at Augsburg, and devoted himself to chemistry for two years (1570-1572) . On his return to Denmark, in 1571, he was permitted by his maternal uncle,
See also:Steno Belle, to instal a laboratory at his
See also:castle of Herritzvad, near Knudstrup; and there, on the 11th of
See also:November 1572, he caught sight of the famous " new
See also:star " in
See also:Cassiopeia . He diligently measured its position, and printed an account of his observations in a
See also:tract entitled De Nova Stella (Copenhagen, 1573), a facsimile of which was produced in 1901, as a tercentenary tribute to the author's memory . Tycho's
See also:marriage with a
See also:peasant-girl in 1573 somewhat strained his family relations . He delivered lectures in Copenhagen by royal command in 1574; and in 1575 travelled through Germany to Venice . The execution of his design to settle at
See also:Basel was, however, anticipated by the munificence of
See also:Frederick II.,
See also:king of Denmark, who bestowed upon him for
See also:life the
See also:island of Hveen in the Sound, together with a pension of 500 thalers, a canonry in the
See also:cathedral of
See also:Roskilde, and the income of an
See also:estate in Norway . The first
See also:stone of the magnificent
See also:observatory of Uraniborg was laid on the 8th of August 1576; it received the finest procurable instrumental outfit; and was the scene, during twenty-one years, of Tycho's labours in systematically
See also:collecting materials—the first made available since the Alexandrian epoch—for the correction of astronomical theories .
See also:James VI. of Scotland, afterwards James I. of England, visited him at Uraniborg on the 20th of
See also:March 1590 .
But by that time his fortunes were on the wane; for Frederick II. died in 1588, and his successor,Christian IV., was less tolerant of Tycho's arrogant and insubordinate behaviour . His pension and
See also:fief having been withdrawn, he sailed for Rostock in
See also:June 1597, and re-commenced observing before the close of the
See also:year, in the castle of Wandsbeck near
See also:Hamburg . He spent the following winter at Wittenberg, and reached
See also:Prague in June 1599, well assured of favour and
See also:protection from the emperor Rudolph II . That monarch, accordingly, assigned him the castle of Benatky for his residence, with a pension of 3000 florins; his
See also:instruments were moved thither from Hveen, and Johannes
See also:Kepler joined him there in
See also:January 1600 . But this phase of renewed prosperity was brief . After eleven days' illness, Tycho Brahe died on the 24th of
See also:October 1601, at Benatky, and was buried in the Teynkirche, Prague . Tycho's
See also:work, entitled Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata (2 vols., Prague, 1602—1603) was edited by Kepler . The first
See also:volume treated of'the motions of the
See also:sun and
See also:moon, and gave the places of 777 fixed stars (this number was increased to 1005 by Kepler in 1627 int.he " Rudolphine Tables ") . The second, which had been privately printed at Uraniborg in 1588 with the heading De Mundi Aetherei recentioribus Phaenomenis, was mainly concerned with the
See also:comet of 1577, demonstrated by Tycho from its insensible
See also:parallax to be no terrestrial exhalation, as commonly supposed, but a
See also:body traversing planetary space . It included, besides, an account of the Tychonic plan of the cosmos, in which a via
See also:media was sought between the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems . The
See also:earth retained. its immobility; but the five planets were made to revolve
See also:round the sun, which, with its entire cortege, annually circuited the earth, the sphere of the fixed stars performing meanwhile, as of old, its all-inclusive diurnal rotation (see ASTRONOMY:
See also:History) . Under the heading Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica, Tycho published at Wandsbeck, in 1598, a description of his instruments, together with an autobiographical account of his career and discoveries, including the memorable one of the moon's " variation " (see MooN) .
See also:book was reprinted at
See also:Nuremberg in 1602 (cf . Hasselberg, Vierteljahrsschrift Astr . Ges. xxxix. iii . 18o) . His Epistolae Astronomicae, printed at Uraniborg in 1596 with a portrait engraved by Geyn of Amsterdam in 1586, were embodied in a
See also:complete edition of his works issued at
See also:Frankfort in 1648 . Tycho vastly improved the
See also:art of astronomical observation . He constructed a table of refractions, allowed for instrumental inaccuracies, and eliminated by averaging accidental errors . He, moreover, corrected the received value of nearly every astronomical quantity; but the theoretical purpose towards which his
See also:practical reform was directed, was foiled by his premature
See also:death . See J . L . E . Dreyer's Tycho Brahe (
See also:Edinburgh, 1890), which gives full and authentic information regarding his life and work .
Also Gassendi's Vita (
See also:Paris, .1654); Lebensbeschreibung, collected from various Danish
See also:sources, and translated into German by Philander von der Weistritz (Copenhagen and Leipzig, 1756) ; Tyge Brahe, by F . R .
See also:Friis (Copenhagen, 1871); Prager Tychoniana, collected by Dr F . I . Studnicka (Prague, 1901), a description of the scanty Tychonian
See also:relics which survived the
See also:Thirty Years' War and are still preserved at Prague . (A . M .
COUNT PER BRAHE (1602-1680)
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