Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V04, Page 463 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BRAZING AND SOLDERING, in metal work, termed respectively hard and soft soldering, are processes which correspond with soldering done at high and at low temperatures. The first embraces jointing effected with soldering mixtures into which copper, brass, or silver largely enter, the second those in which lead and tin are the only, or the principal, constituents. Some metals, as aluminium and cast iron, are less easily soldered than others. Aluminium, owing to its high conductivity, removes the heat from the solder rapidly. Aluminium enters into the composition of most of the solders for these metals, and the " soldering bit " is of pure nickel. The hard solders are the spelter and the silver solders. Soft spelter solder is composed of equal parts of copper and zinc, melted and granulated and passed through a sieve. As some of the zinc volatilizes the ultimate proportions are not quite equal. The proportion of zinc is increased if the solder is required to be softer or more fusible. A valuable property of the zinc is that its volatilization indicates the fusing of the solder. Silver solder is used for jewelry and other fine metal work, and has the advantage of high fusing points. The hardest contains from 4 parts of silver to i of copper; the softest 2 of silver to 1 of in the district in question, accompanied by a pecuniary indemnity, was signed by President Alves at Petropolis on the 17th of November 1903. During the remainder of the term of this president internal and financial progress were undisturbed save by an outbreak in 1904 in the Cunani district, the very portion of disputed territory which had been assigned to Brazil by the arbitration with France. This province, being difficult of access, was able for a time to assert a practical independence. In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the other states against Sao Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had belonged. Penna's presidency was distinguished by his successful efforts to place June 19o9. (K. J ; C. E. A.; G. E.) Geography, &c.: Elisee Reclus, Universal Geography (1875–r894), vol. xix. pp. 77-291; J. E. Wappaus, Geographica physica do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1884) ; A. Moreira Pinto, Chorographia do Brazil (5th ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1895); Therese Prinzessin von Bayern, Meine Reise indenbrasilianischen Tropen (Berlin, 1897) ; M. La.mberg, Brasilien, Land and Leute (Leipzig, 1899) ; L. Hutchinson, Report on Trade in Brazil (Washington, 1906); F. Katzer, Grundzuge der Geologic des unteren Amazonegebietes (Leipzig, 1903) ; J. C. Branner, A Bibliography of the Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1903) ; J. W. Evans, " The Rocks of the Cataracts of the River Madeira and the adjoining Portions of the Beni and Mamore," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., London, vol. lxii., 1906, pp. 88-124, pl. V.
BREACH (Mid. Eng. breche, derived from the common T...

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