BREDA , a fortified
See also:town in the province of
See also:North Brabant,
See also:Holland, at the confluence of the canalized
See also:rivers Merk and Aa, 15 m. by
See also:rail E.N.E. of Roozendaal . Pop . (1900) 26,296 . It is connected by steam
See also:tramway with Antwerp (30 M . S.S.W.), and with Geertruidenberg in the north, and the
See also:island of Duiveland on the west . The fortress of Breda, which was once considered impregnable, has been dismantled, but the town is still protected by extensive lines of fortification and lies in the midst of a
See also:district which can be readily laid under
See also:water . It has a
See also:fine quay, town-
See also:hall and
See also:park . There are several
See also:Roman Catholic and
See also:Protestant churches . The
See also:principal Protestant
See also:church is a
See also:building dating from the end of the 13th century, with a fine tower, and a
See also:choir of later date (1410) . Among the many interesting monuments is the imposing
See also:tomb of the stadtholder Count Engelbert II. of
See also:Nassau and his wife . This is the
See also:work of Tomasino Vincenz of Bologna, who, though a
See also:pupil of
See also:Raphael in
See also:painting, in sculpture followed Michelangelo, to whom the work is some-times ascribed . Since 1828 Breda has been the seat of a royalmilitary academy for all arms of the service .
It also possesses a Latin school, an
See also:arsenal, and a
See also:modern prison built on the isolated-
See also:cell principle . The prison is in the
See also:form of a rotunda, 58 yds. in diameter, and covered by a high dome . In the
See also:middle is the
See also:office of the administration, and on the top of this a small
See also:watch-tower .
See also:Round the walls of the rotunda are the cells, 208 in number, and arranged in four tiers with balconies reached by iron staircases . Each cell
See also:measures 35 cub. yds., is provided with an electric
See also:bell communicating with the warder in the tower, heated by hot-air pipes, and lighted by
See also:day through a window on the
See also:wall of the rotunda, and from sunset till ten o'
See also:clock by electric
See also:light . The
See also:industries of Breda comprise the manufacture of
See also:linen and woollen goods, carpets, hats,
See also:beer and musical
See also:instruments . In the neighbourhood of the town are the villages of Ginneken and Prinsenhage, situated in the midst of
See also:pine woods . They form favourite places of excursion, and in the woods at Ginneken is a Kneipp
See also:sanatorium .
See also:History.—Breda was in the r, th century a
See also:fief of the
See also:Holy Roman
See also:Empire, its earliest known
See also:lord being
See also:Henry I . (1098-1125), in whose
See also:family it continued, though, from the latter
See also:part of the 13th century, in the
See also:line, until Alix, heiress of
See also:Philip (d . 1323), sold it to Brabant . In 1350 the fief was resold to
See also:John (
See also:Jan) of Polanen (d .
1377), the heiress of whose line,
See also:Joanna (d . 1445), married Engelbert of Nassau-Dillenburg (d . 1442) . Henceforth it remained in the
See also:house of Nassau, passing ultimately to
See also:William I . (1533-1584), the first stadtholder of the
See also:Netherlands . Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old
See also:castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350 . From this
See also:period until
See also:late in the 19th century it remained the most important of the line of fortresses along the Meuse . Breda was captured by surprise by the Spaniards in 1581; but in 1590 it fell again into the hands of
See also:Maurice of Nassau, 68 picked men contriving to get into the town concealed under the
See also:turf in a
See also:boat . The so-called " Spaniard's Hole " still marks the spot where the peat-boat
See also:lay . Its surrender in 1625, after a ten months'
See also:siege, to the Spaniards under Spinola is the subject of the famous picture by Velasquez in the Museo del Prado in
See also:Madrid . In 1637 Breda was recaptured by
See also:Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia . During the
See also:wars of the French Revolution, it was taken by Dumouriez in 1793, evacuated soon after and retaken by
See also:Pichegru in 1795, after the whole of Holland had already succumbed to the French .
In 1813, a sally being made by the Frenchgarrison on an advance-guard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town . Breda was the residence, during his
See also:exile, of
See also:Charles II., who, by the declaration of Breda (1660), made known the conditions of his acceptance of the
See also:crown of England . In 1696 William,
See also:prince of Orange and
See also:king of England, built the new castle, one of the finest buildings of the period, which now serves as the military academy . Breda also derives some celebrity from the various
See also:political congresses of which it has been the scene . In 1575 a
See also:conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the
See also:United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746–1747 the representatives of the same
See also:powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty .
BRECONSHIRE, or BRECKNOCKSHIRE
JAN FRANS VAN BREDAEL (1683–1750)
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