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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF BRITISH OUTPUT

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 760 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF BRITISH OUTPUT DAIRY PRODUCE Whilst the quantity of imported butter and cheese consumed in the United Kingdom from year to year can be arrived at with a tolerable degree of accuracy, it is more difficult to form an estimate of the amounts of these articles annually produced at home. Various attempts have, however, from time to time been made by competent authorities to arrive approximately at the annual output of milk, butter and cheese in the United Kingdom, and the results are given by Messrs W. Weddel & Co. in their annual Dairy Produce Review. Table XI. shows the estimates for each of the ten years 1890 to 1899, the numbers in the second column of " cows and heifers in milk or in calf " being identical with those officially recorded in the agricultural returns. In thus estimating the quantity of milk, butter and cheese produced within the United Kingdom, the " average milking life " of a cow is taken to be four years, from which it follows that on the average one-fourth of the total herd has to be renewed every year by heifers with their first calf. This leaves 75% of the total herd giving milk throughout the year. Each cow of this 75% is estimated as yielding 49 cwt., or 531 gallons of milk annually. It is assumed that 15% of the total milk yield is used for the calf, 32% utilized for butter- Cows Cows Influence of Estimated Total Estimated Total Estimated Total and Quantity of Quantity of Year Cows and Heifers Per Heifers giving Season. Per- Quantity of Butter produced Cheese produced ended in milk or in r000 Milk all the centage above Milk produced in the 52 Weeks, in the 52 Weeks, Decem- of round; or below the in the o2 Weeks, takin 2 taking 20 % of year by 75 /o of the g 3 % of Calf on 4th June. ° Average of the Total Milk the Total Milk ber 31 Popu- say 75 /0 of Total Herd, at lation. Total. previous 49 cwt. or 531 to yield 8o lb to yield 220 lb to Years. gallons per Cow. of Butter per of Cheese per Ton of Milk. Ton of Milk. No. No. No. % Tons. Tons. Tons. 1890 3;956,220 105.5 2,967, 165 -f 3'0 7,487,640 _ 147,078 85,572 1891 4,117,707 108.9 3,088,281 Average. 7,566,288 86,472 148,624 1892 4,120,451 1o8.1 3,090,339 -5.6 7,147,337 81,684 140,394 1893 4,014,055 104.4 3,010,542 -9.0 6,712,004 76,709 131,843 1894 3,925,486 101.2 2,944,115 +6.3 7,667,505 87,628 150,611 1895 3,937,590 100.5 2,953,193 -3'5 6,982,087 79,652 137,148 1896 3,958,762 100.0 2,969,387 -4.0 6,983,999 79,817 130,000 1897 3,984,167 99'7 2,988,126 +3'1 7,547,856 86,261 148,26o 1898 4,035,501 100.0 3,025,526 +3'2 7,645,105 87,372 150,171 1899 4,133,249 101.9 3,099 937 -3'5 7,329,027 83,76o 130,020 IoYears'r 4,018,318 103.0 3,013,660 -0.7 7,906,874 83,992 141,412 Average making, 20% for cheese-making, and the remaining 33% consumed in the household as fresh milk. A ton of milk is estimated to produce 8o lb of butter or 220 lb of cheese. A gallon of milk weighs 10.33 lb (10* lb). The probable effects of each season upon the production have been taken into consideration in making these estimates, and it will be noticed that owing to the terrible drought of 1893 a reduction of 9% is made from the average. Accepting these estimates with due reservation,' it is seen that the annual production of milk varied in the decade to the extent of nearly a million tons, the exact difference between the maximum of 7,667,505 tons in 1894 and the minimum of 6,712,004 tons in 1893 being 955,501 tons. The decennial averages are 7,906,874 tons of milk, 83,992 tons of butter, and 141,412 tons of cheese. Table XII. furnishes an estimate of the total consumption of butter in the United Kingdom in each of the years 1891 to 1900. Whilst the estimated home production did not vary greatly from year to year, the imports from colonial and foreign sources under-went almost continuous increase. The ten years' average indicates 37.6% home-made, 7.3% imported colonial, and 55.1% imported foreign butter. But whereas at the beginning of the decade the proportions were 45.4% home-made, 1.5% colonial, and 53.2 % foreign, at the end of the percentages were 32.8, 14.7 and 52.5 respectively. It thus appears that whilst the United Kingdom was able in 1891 to furnish nearly half of its requirements (45.4%), by 1900 it was unable to supply more than one-third (32.8%). The rapid headway which colonial butter has made in British markets is shown by the fact that for the five years ended 30th of Year ended Home Imported Imported Total. Production, 30th June. estimated. Colonial. Fore. Col g Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. 1891 84,961 2,883 99,598 187,442 1892 86,022 6,323 101,796 194,141 1893 84,078 9,408 105,712 199,198 1894 79,196 15,550 107,534 202,280 1895 82,168 17,807 116,730 216,705 1896 83,640 12,949 133,249 229,838 1897 79,734 18,111 138,800 236,645 1898 83,039 17,732 141,426 242,197 1899 . 87,326 22,443 142,193 251,962 1900 83 760 37,534 133,957 255,251 10 Years' 83,392 16,074 122,099 221,565 Average June 1900 the import had grown from 12,949 tons to 37,534 tons per annum, or an increase of 24,585 tons. It is during the mid-winter months that the colonial butter from Australasia arrives on the British markets, while that from Canada begins to arrive in July, 'and virtually ceases in the following January. The bulk of the Canadian butter reaches British markets during August, September and October; the bulk of the Australasian in December, January and February. It appears to be demonstrated by the experience of the last decade of the 19th century that the United Kingdom is quite unable to turn out sufficient dairy produce to supply its own population. In the year ended 30th of June 1891 the total import of butter was 102,500 tons, and for the year ended 30th of June 1900 it was 170,700 tons, which shows an annual average increase in the decade of 6800 tons. This growth was on the whole very uniform, any disturbance in its regularity being attributable more to the deficient seasons in the colonies and foreign countries than to the bountiful seasons at home. Twice in the decade the import of butter from colonial sources fell off slightly from the previous year, namely, in 1896 and 1898, while only once was there any decrease in the foreign supply, and this occurred in 1906. In 1896 the colonial supply fell off by 5000 tons, principally owing to drought in Australia, but from foreign countries this deficiency was more than made good, as the increased import from these sources exceeded 16,500 tons. In 1900 the position was reversed, for while the foreign import fell away to the extent of over 800o tons, the supply from the colonies exceeded that of 1899 by 15,000 tons, thus leaving a gain in the quantity of imported butter of nearly 7000 tons on the year. Table XII. shows that over the ten years, 1891-1900, the import of colonial butter was augmented by 34,600 tons, and that of foreign by 33,600 tons, so that the in- ' A special committee appointed by the council of the Royal Statistical Society commenced in 1901 an inquiry into the home production of milk and meat in the United Kingdom.creased import is fairly divided between colonial and foreign sources. If, however, the last five years of the period be taken, it will be seen that the increases in the arrivals of colonial butter have far exceeded those from foreign countries. Between 1891 and 1900 the Australasian colonies increased their quota by 13,400 tons, and Canada by 11,100 tons. Of foreign countries, Denmark showed the greatest development in the supply of imported butter, which increased in the ten years by 28,678 tons. Next came Russia and Holland, with increases respectively of 7207 tons and 6589 tons. Sweden, which made stdady progress from 1891 to 1896, subsequently declined, and in 1900 sent 1400 tons less than in 1891. France and Germany are rapidly falling away, and the latter country will soon cease its supply altogether. Up to 1896 it was 6000 tons annually; by 1900 it had fallen to 185o tons. France, which in 1892 sent to the United Kingdom 29,000 tons, regularly declined, and in 1900 sent only 16,800. Among the countries sending the smaller quantities, Argentina, Belgium and Norway are all gradually increasing their supplies ; but their totals are comparatively insignificant, as they together contributed in 1900 only 6400 tons out of a total foreign supply of 134,000 tons. The United States was erratic in its supplies during the decade, and up to 1900 had not made butter specially for export to the United Kingdom, as all the other foreign countries had done. Consequently it is only when supplies from elsewhere fail that American butter is sought for by British buyers. The large amount of salt in this butter, although suitable for the American palate, prevents its becoming popular in the United Kingdom. The sources whence the United Kingdom receives butter from abroad are sufficiently indicated in Table XIII., which shows the absolute quantities and the relative proportions sent by the chief contributory countries in each of the four years 1897 to 1900, the From 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Denmark . . 1,334,726 1,465,030 1,430,052 1,486,342 Australasia 269,432 228,563 366,944 509,910 France 448,128 416,821 353,942 322,048 Holland 278,631 269,631 284,810 282,805 Russia* .. .. .. 209,738 Sweden 299,214 294,962 245,599 196,041 Canada 109,402 156,865 250,083 138,313 United States 154,196 66,712 159,137 56,046 Germany . 51,761 41,231 36,953 36,042 Other countries . 272,312 269,645 262,331 141,231 Total . 3,217,802 3,209,153 3,389,851 3,378,516 % % % Denmark . 41'5 45'6 42.2 44.0 Australasia 8.4 7.1 10.8 15.1 France 13'9 13.0 10.5 9'5 Holland 8.7 8.4 8.4 8'4 Russia* .. .. .. 6.2 Sweden 9.3 9'2 7.2 5.8 Canada 3.4 4.9 7.4 4.1 United States 4.8 2.1 4.7 1.6 Germany 1.6 I.3 1.1 1.1 Other countries 8.4 8.4 7'7 4'2 Total moo ioo•o ioo•o 100.0 * Not shown separately in the Trade and Navigation Returns prior to 1900. order of precedence of the several countries being in accord with the figures for 1900. Denmark, as a result of the efforts made by that little kingdom to supply a sound product of uniform quality, possesses over 40% of the trade, and in the year 1900 received from the United Kingdom upwards of £8,000,000 for butter and over £3,000,000 for bacon, the raising of pigs for the consumption of separated milk being an important adjunct of the dairying industry in Denmark, where butter factories are extensively maintained on the co-operative principle. It is worthy of note that some at least of the butter received in the United Kingdom from Russia is made in Siberia, whence it is sent at the outset on a long land journey in refrigerated railway cars for shipment at a Baltic port, usually Riga. The countries not specially enumerated in Table XIII. from which butter is sent to the United Kingdom are Argentina, Belgium, Norway and Spain-these are included in " other countries." In Table XIV., relating to the estimated home production of cheese and the imports of that article, the ten years' average indicates a home-made supply of 555.3 %, imports of colonial cheese 24.2 %, and imports of foreign cheese 20.5 %. Comparing, however, the first with the last year of the period 1891-1900, it appears that in 1891 the proportions were 58.6% home-made, 17.2 % colonial and 24.2% foreign, whereas in 1900 the percentages were 50.3, 28.9 and 20.8 respectively. Hence the colonial contribution (chiefly Canadian) has gained ground at the expense both of the home-made and of the foreign. Again, comparing 1891 with 1900, the import of cheese into the United Kingdom increased to the extent of only 24,500 tons, so that it shows no expansion comparable with that of butter, which increased by about 70,000 tons. Simultaneously the estimated home production diminished by 17,000 tons. Year ended Home Imported Imported, Total. Production, 30th June estimated. Colonial Foreign. Tons. Tons Tons. Tons. 1891 . 147,078 43,228 6o,816 251,122 1892 . 148,624 45,781 59,452 253,857 1893 • 140,394 55,549 56,767 252,710 1894 • 131,843 57,322 52,498 241,663 1895 . 150,611 61,622 52,570 264,803 1896 . 137,148 62,478 44,569 244,195 1897 . 130,000 67,028 46,317 243,345 1898 . r48,26o 77,620 49,114 274,994 1899 . 150,000 73,752 46,985 270,737 1900 . 130,000 74,702 53,903 258,605 10 Years' 141,396 61,908 52,299 255,603 Average In imported colonial cheese Canada virtually has the field to itself, for the only other colonial cheese which finds its way into the .United Kingdom is from New Zealand, but the amount of this kind is comparatively insignificant, having been in 1900 only 4000 tons out of a total import of 128,600 tons. Australia, in several seasons since 1891, sent small quantities, but they are not worth quoting. From foreign countries the decline in the export of cheese is mainly in the case of the United States, which shipped to British ports 10,000 tons less in 1900 than in 1891. France also is losing its cheese trade in British markets, and is being supplanted by Belgium. In 1891 France supplied over 3000 tons, in 1900 the import was below 2000 tons. Belgium in 1891 supplied less than moo tons, but in 1900 contributed 2600 tons. The import trade in Dutch cheese remains almost stationary. In 1891 it amounted to 15,300 tons, in 1899 it was 15,600 tons, whilst in 1900, owing to exceptionally high prices, which stimulated the manufacture, it reached 17,000 tons. Over 8o% of the cheese imported into the United Kingdom is derived from North America, but the bulk of the trade belongs to Canada, which supplies nearly 6o % of the entire import. The value of the cheese exported from Canada to the United Kingdom in the calendar year 1900 was close upon £3,800,000. As is shown in Table XV. below, Holland, Australasia and France participate in this trade, whilst amongst the " other countries " are Germany, Italy and Russia. The cheese sent from North America and Aus- From 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Canada . 1,526,664 1,432,181 1,337,198 1,511,872 United States . 631,616 485,995 590,737 680,583 Holland 297,604 292,925 328,541 327,817 Australasia 68,615 44,608 32,294 86,513 France . 36,358 33,086 34,307 35,110 Other countries . 42,321 50,657 60,992 69,910 Total . . 2,603,178 2,339,452 2,384,069 2,711,805 Canada . O% O O/O O/O O% 58.6 61.2 56.1 O 55.8 United States 24.3 20.8 24.8 25.1 Holland 11.4 12.5 13.8 12.0 Australasia 2.7 1.9 1.3 3.2 France 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 Other countries . 1.6 2.2 2.6 2.6 Total . Ioo•o I000 I000 I000 tralasia is mostly of the substantial Cheddar type, whereas soft or " fancy " cheese is the dominant feature of the French shipments. Thus, in the calendar year 1900 the average price of the cheese imported into the United Kingdom from France was 61s. per cwt., whilst the average value of the cheese from all other sources was 50s. per cwt., there being a difference of 1Is. in favour of the " soft " cheese of France. The imports of butter and margarine into the United Kingdom were not separately distinguished before the year 1886. Previous tothat date they amounted, at five-year intervals, to the following aggregate quantities: 1870. 1875. 1880. 1885. Cwt. . . 1,159,210 1,467,870 2,326,305 2,401,373 For the same years the imports of cheese registered the subjoined totals 187o. 1875. 1880. 1885. Cwt. . . 1,041,281 1,627,748 1,775,997 1,833,832 The imports of butter and margarine, both separately and together, and also the imports of cheese in each year from 1886 to 1900 inclusive, are set out in Table XVI., the most significant feature of which is the rapid expansion it shows in the imports of butter. In. the space of nine years, between 1887 and 1896, the quantity was doubled. On the other hand, the general tendency of the imports of margarine, which have been much more uniform than those of butter, has been in the direction of decline since 1892. It is necessary, however, to point out that there has been an increase in the number of margarine factories in the United Kingdom, and in the quantity of margarine manufactured in them, during the last few years. Taking the imports of butter and margarine together, the aggregate in 1889 and also in 1900 was practically three times as large as a quarter of a century earlier, in 1875. The imports of cheese have increased at a less rapid rate than those of butter, and the quantity imported in 1900, which was a maximum, fell considerably short of twice the quantity in 1875. In 1886, 1887, 1888, 1890 and 1892 the imports of cheese exceeded those of butter, but since Year. Butter. Margarine. Total Butter Cheese. and Margarine. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. 1886 . 1,543,566 887,974 2,431,540 1,734,890 1887 . 1,513,134 1,276,140 2,789,274 1,836,789 1888 . 1,671,433 1,139,743 2,811,176 1,917,616 1889 . 1,927,842 1,241,690 3,169,532 1,907,999 1890 . 2,027,717 1,079,856 3,107,573 2,144,074 1891 . 2,135,607 1,235,430 3,371,037 2,041,325 1892 . 2,183,009 1,305,350 3,488,359 2,232,817 1893 . 2,327,474 1,299,970 3,627,444 2,077,462 1894 . 2,574,835 1,109,325 3,684,160 2,266,145 1895 . 2,825,662 940,168 3,765,830 2,133,819 1896 . 3,037,718 925,934 3,963,652 2,244,525 1897 . 3,217,802 936,543 4,154,345 2,603,178 1898 . 3,209,153 900,615 4,109,768 2,339,452 1899 . 3,389,851 953,175 4,343,026 2,384,069 1900 . 3,378,516 920,416 4,298,932 2,711,805 the last-named year those of butter have always been the larger, and 1899 were fully a million cwt. more than the cheese imports. The cheapness of imported fresh meat has probably had the effect of checking the growth of the demand for cheese amongst the industrial classes. The imports of condensed milk into the United Kingdom were not separately distinguished before 1888. In that year they amounted to 352,332 cwt. The quantities imported in subsequent years were the following: Year. Cwt. Year. Cwt. Year. Cwt. 1889 • 339,892 1893 501,005 1897 756,243 1890 407,426 1894 529,465 1898 817,274 1891 • 444,666 1895 545,394 1899 824,599 1892 . 481,374 1896 611,335 1900 986,741 The quantity thus increased continuously in each year after 1889, with the result that in 1900 the imports had grown to nearly three times the amount of those in 1889. Simultaneously, over the period 1889-1900 the annual value of the imports steadily advanced from £704,849 to £1,405,033. Thus, while the imports of condensed milk trebled in quantity, they doubled in value. A fair proportion is, however, exported, as is shown in the following statement of exports of imported condensed milk for the four years 1897 to 1900:- 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. Quantity, . cwt. 143,932 133,596 118,394 164,602 Value . . £274,578 £256,525 £228,446 £309,460 There is also an export trade in condensed milk made in the United Kingdom. Thus, in 1892 the exports of home-made condensed milk amounted to 61,442 cwt., valued at £133,556. By 1896 the quantity had almost doubled, and reached 111,959 cwt., of the value of £224,831. In subsequent years the exports were:- 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. Quantity, . cwt. 154,901 178,055 185,749 209,447 Value . £302,748 £343,070 £353,819 £390,559 Milk and cream (fresh or preserved other than condensed) received no separate classification in the imports until 1894, in which year the quantity imported was 161,633 gallons, followed by 126,995 gallons in 1895, and 22,776 gallons in 1896. The quantities have since been returned by weight-Io,006 cwt. in 1897, 10,691 cwt. in 1898, 7859 cwt. in 1899, and 15,638 cwt. in 1900. The values of these imports in the successive years 1894 to 1900 were £21,371, £19,991, £5489, £9848, £11,293, £16,068 and £26,837. The total values of the imports of dairy produce of all kinds-butter, margarine, cheese, &c.-into the United Kingdom were, at five-year intervals between 1875 and 189o, the following:- 1875. 1880. 1885. 1890. Value . £13,211,592 £17,232,548 £15,632,852 £19,505,798 The values in each year of the closing decade of the 19th century are set forth in Table XVII., where the totals in the last column include small sums for margarine-cheese and, since 1893, for fresh milk and cream. The aggregate value more than doubled during the iast quarter of the century. The earliest year for which the value Year. Butter. Margarine. Cheese. Condensed Total. Milk. £I000. 41 ono. £Ioo0. £I000. £I000. 1891 11,591 3558 4813 900 20,863 1892 . I1,965 3713 5417 930 22,025 1893 12,754 3655 5161 1010 22,580 1894 • 13,457 3045 5475 1079 23,077 1895 • 14,245 2557 4675 1084 22,581 1896 . 15,344 2498 4900 1170 23,920 1897 . 15,917 2485 5886 1398 25,715 1898 . 15,962 2384 4970 1436 24,779 1899 . 17,214 2549 5503 1455 26,747 1900 17,450 2465 6838 1743 28,544 of imported butter is separately available is 1886, when it amounted to £8,141,438. Thirteen years later this sum had more than doubled, and it is an impressive fact that in the closing year of the century the United Kingdom should have expended on imported butter alone a sum closely approximating to 172 million pounds sterling, equivalent to about three-fourths of the total amount disbursed on imported wheat grain.' The imports of margarine-that is, of margarine specifically declared to be such-into the United Kingdom are derived almost entirely from Holland. Out of a total of 920,416 cwt. imported in 1900 Holland supplied 862,154 cwt., and out of £2,464,839 expended on imported margarine in the same year Holland received £2,295,174. To the imports in the year named Holland contributed 93.7%; France, 2.9; Norway, o•9; all other countries, 2.5; so that Holland >possesses almost a monopoly of this trade. The quantities of imported butter, margarine and cheese that are again exported from the United Kingdom are trivial when compared with the imports, as will be seen from the following quantities and values in the three years 1898 to 1900:- 1898. 1899. 1900. 1898. 1899. 1900. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. £ £ £ Butter . 63,491 50,453 51,583 319,806 257,999 258,931 Margarine 10,023 13,139 11,326 24,721 33,319 27,882 Cheese . 56,694 56,390 55,982 159,210 163,991 168,369 There is also a very small export trade in butter and cheese made in the United Kingdom, but its insignificant character is evident from the subjoined details as to quantities and values for the years named :- k 1898. 1899. 1900. Butter Cheese
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