See also:English painter, was
See also:born at
See also:Calais on the 16th of
See also:April 1821 . His
See also:father was
See also:Brown, a retired
See also:purser in the
See also:navy; his
See also:mother, Caroline Madox, of an old Kentish
See also:family . His paternal grandfather was Dr
See also:John Brown, who established the Brunonian Theory of
See also:Medicine . Ford Madox Brown was the only
See also:child of his parents, save for a daughter who died
See also:young . In childhood he was shifted about a
See also:deal between France and England; and having shown from the age of six or seven a turn for
See also:drawing he was taken, when fourteen years old, and with meagre acquirements in the way of general tuition, to Bruges, and placed under the instruction of Gregorius, a
See also:pupil of
See also:David . His
See also:principal instructor, however, from about 1837, was Baron Wappers, of Antwerp, then regarded as a
See also:light of the Belgian school . From him the youth learned the technique not only of oil
See also:painting but of various other branches of
See also:art . At a very early age Brownattained a remarkable degree of force in drawing and painting, as attested by an extant oil-portrait of his father, done at an age • not exceeding fifteen . His first composition, towards 1836, represented a
See also:beggar and his child; his first exhibited
See also:work, 1837, was "
See also:Job on the Ash-heap "; the first exhibited work in
See also:London (at the Royal Academy, 184o), " The Giaour's Confession," from
See also:Byron's poem . Both his parents died before 184o, leaving to the young painter a moderate competence, which soon was materially reduced . In 184o Brown completed a large picture, " The Execution of Mary,
See also:queen of Scots," strong in dramatic effect and in handling, with rather sombre
See also:colour; from this
See also:time forth he must be regarded as a proficient artist,
See also:independent in his point of view and strenuous in execution . He contributed to the
See also:cartoon competitions, 1844 and 1845, for the Houses of Parliament—"
See also:Adam and
See also:Eve after the Fall," "The
See also:Body of Harold brought to
See also:William the Conqueror," and " The Spirit of
See also:Justice." These highly remarkable cartoons passed not wholly unobserved, but not one of them obtained a prize .
The years 184o to 1845 were passed in
See also:Paris, London and Rome: towards the
See also:middle of 1846 Brown settled permanently in London . In 1841 he had married his
See also:Elizabeth Bromley, who died of
See also:consumption in 1846, leaving a daughter,
See also:Lucy, who in 1874 became the wife of William M . Rossetti . Not long after being
See also:left a widower, Brown took a second wife, Emma
See also:Hill, who figures in many of his pictures . She had two
See also:children who
See also:grew up: Catherine, who married Dr
See also:Franz Hueffer, the musical
See also:scholar and critic, and Oliver, who died in 1874 in his twentieth
See also:year . All three children showed considerable ability in painting, and Oliver in
See also:romance as well . The second Mrs Brown died in 189o . The most marked distinction of Brown as an artist may be defined as vigorous invention of historic or dramatic scenes, carried out with a great regard to individuality in the personages, expressions and accessories of incident and detail, not excluding the
See also:familiar, the
See also:peculiar and the semi-
See also:grotesque, when these seem to subserve the general
See also:intent . Owing, however, to his association with artists of the so-called " pre-Raphaelite "
See also:movement (which began
See also:late in 1848), and especially with
See also:Gabriel Rossetti, who received some training in his studio in the
See also:spring of that year, he has been regarded sometimes as the precursor or initiator of this movement, and sometimes as a
See also:direct co-operator in it . His claim to be regarded as a precursor or initiator is not strong; though it is true that even before 1841 he had pondered the theory (not then much in vogue) that a picture ought to
See also:present the veritable light and shade proper to some one moment in the
See also:day, and his "
See also:Manfred on the
See also:Jungfrau " (1841) exemplifies this principle to some extent; it reappears in his very large picture of "
See also:Chaucer at the
See also:Court of
See also:Edward III." (now in the public gallery of
See also:Australia), which, although projected in 1845, was not brought to completion until 1851 . As to becoming a direct co-operator in the pre-Raphaelite movement, he did not join the " Brotherhood," though it would have been open to him to do so; but for some years his
See also:works exhibited a marked influence derived from the movement, not on the whole to their clear
See also:advantage . The principal pictures of this class are: " The
See also:Pretty Baa-
See also:lambs "; " Work " (a street scene at
See also:Hampstead); and " The Last of England " (an emigration subject, one of his most excellent achievements) : dating between 1851 and 1863 .
See also:Peter's Feet " (now in the
See also:National Gallery of
See also:British Art) comes within the same range of
See also:dates, and is a masterly work; here the pre-Raphaelite influence is less manifest . Altogether it may be averred that the conception and introduction of the pre-Raphaelite
See also:scheme, such as it appeared to the public
See also:eye in 1849 and r85o, belong to Millais,
See also:Hunt and Rossetti, rather than to Brown . Other leading pictures by Brown are the following:— "Cordelia at the Bedside of
See also:Lear "; "
See also:Shakespeare "; Jacob and
See also:Joseph's Coat "; " Elijah and the Widow's Son "; "Cordelia's Portion "; " The Entombment "; " Romeo and Juliet" (the parting on the
See also:balcony); " Don Juan and Haidee "; "
See also:Cromwell on his
See also:Farm "; " Cromwell,
See also:Protector of the Vaudois ":—covering the
See also:period from 1849 to 1877 . "
See also:Sardanapalus and Myrrha." begun within the same period, was finished later . He produced, moreover, a great number of excellent cartoons for stained
See also:glass, being up to 1874 a member of the
See also:firm of decorative art,
See also:Marshall, Faulkner and Co . He also executed, in
See also:colours or in crayons, various portraits, including his own . From 1878 he was almost engrossed by work which he undertook for the
See also:hall of Manchester, and which entailed his living for some few years in that city—twelve large
See also:wall paintings, some of them done in a modified
See also:form of the Gambier-
See also:process, and others in oils on
See also:canvas applied to the wall
See also:surface . They present a compendium of the
See also:history of Manchester and its
See also:district, from the
See also:building of the
See also:camp at
See also:Mancunium to the experimental work of Dalton in elaborating the atomic theory . This is an extremely
See also:fine series, though with some diversity of individual merit in the paintings, and is certainly the chief representative, in the
See also:Kingdom, of any such form of
See also:artistic effort—if we leave out of count the works (by various painters) in the Houses of Parliament . Madox Brown was never a popular or highly remunerated artist . Up' to near middle age he went through trying straits in
See also:money matters; afterwards his circumstances improved, but he was not really well off at any time . In youth he followed the usual course as an exhibiting painter, but after some
See also:mortification and heart-burnings he did little in this way after 1852 .
He held, however, in 1865, an
See also:exhibition of his own then numerous paintings and designs . He also delivered a few lectures on fine art from time to time . From 1868 he suffered from
See also:gout; and this led to an attack of apoplexy, from which he died in London on the 6th of
See also:October 1893 . He was a man of upright, independent and honourable character, of warm affections, a steady and self-sacrificing friend; but he took offence rather readily, and viewed various persons and institutions with a degree of suspicion which may be pronounced excessive . He
See also:interest in many questions outside the range of his art, and, being a good and varied talker, had often some-thing apposite and suggestive to say about them . On more than one occasion he exerted himself very zealously for the benefit of the working classes . In politics he was a consistent Democrat, and on religious questions an Agnostic . The
See also:life of this artist has been well written by his
See also:grandson, Ford M . Hueffer, in a handsomely illustrated
See also:volume entitled Ford Madox Brown (London, 1896) . This volume contains some extracts from Brown's
See also:diary, extending in the whole from 1847 to 1865; and other lengthier extracts appear in two books edited by William M . Rossetti—Ruskin, Rossetti, Pre-Raphaelitism (1899), and Pre-Raphaelite Diaries and Letters (1899) . See also the Preferences in Art, &c., by Harry Quilter (1892), and a pamphlet, Ford Madox Brown (1901), by
See also:Helen Rossetti (Angeli), applicable to a collection of his works exhibited in the Whitechapel Art Gallery ..
(W . M .
CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN (1771-181o)
FRANCIS BROWN (1849- )
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.