Online Encyclopedia

BRUNSWICK

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V04, Page 691 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BRUNSWICK, a village of Cumberland county, Maine,U.S.A., in the township of Brunswick, on the Androscoggin river, 9 M. W. of Bath, and 27 M. N.N.E. of Portland. Pop. of the township (1900) 68o6; (191o) 6621; of the village (1900) 5210 (1704 foreign-born); (1910) 5341. Brunswick is served by the Maine Central railway, and by the Lewiston, Brunswick & Bath, and the Portland & Brunswick electric railways. Opposite Bruns-wick and connected with it by a bridge is the township of Topsham (pop. in 1910, 2016). The village of Brunswick lies only 63 ft. above sea-level, shut within rather narrow bounds by hills or bluffs, from which good views may be obtained of the island-dotted sea and deeply-indented coast to the south and east and of the White Mountains to the west. The river falls in three successive stages for a total distance of 41 ft., furnishing good water-power for paper and cotton mills and other manufactories; the first cotton-mill in Maine was built here about 1809. The settlement of the site of Brunswick was begun by fishermen in 1628 and the place was called Pejepscot; in 1717 Brunswick was constituted a township under its present name by the Massachusetts general court, and in 1739 the township was regularly incorporated. The village was incorporated in 1836. Brunswick is best known as the seat of Bowdoin College, a small institution of high educational rank. There are eleven buildings on a campus of about 40 acres, I m. from the river-bank at the end of the principal village thoroughfare. The chapel (King Chapel, named in honour of William King, the first governor of Maine), built of undressed granite, is of Romanesque style, and has twin towers and spires rising to a height of 12o ft.; the interior walls are beautifully decorated with frescoes and mural paintings. The Walker Art Building (built as a memorial to Theophilus W. Walker) is of Italian Renaissance style, has mural decorations by John la Farge, Elihu Vedder, Abbott H. Thayer and Kenyon Cox, and contains a good collection of paintings and other works of art. Among the paintings, many of which were given by the younger James Bowdoin, are examples of van Dyck, Titian, Poussin and Rembrandt. The. library building is of Gothic style, and in 1908 contained 88,000 volumes (including the private library of the younger James Bowdoin). Among the other buildings are an astronomical observatory, a science building, a memorial hall, a gymnasium and three dormitories. The building of the Medical School of Maine (1820), which is a department of the college, is on the same campus. Bowdoin was incorporated by the general court of Massachusetts in 1794, but was not opened until 1802. It was named in honour of James Bowdoin (1726–1790), whose son was a liberal benefactor. The college has been maintained as a non-sectarian institution largely by Congregationalists, and is governed by a board of trustees and a board of overseers. Among the distinguished alumni have been Nathaniel Hawthorne, Franklin Pierce, Henry W. Longfellow, John P. Hale, William P. Fessenden, Melville W. Fuller, and Thomas B. Reed. BRUNSWICK-BEVERN, AUGUST WILHELM, DUKE OF (1715-1781), Prussian soldier, son of Ernst Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick-Bevern, was born at Brunswick in 1715, and entered the Prussian army in 1731, becoming colonel of an infantry regiment in 1739. He won great distinction at Hohenfriedeberg as a major-general, and was promoted lieutenant-general in 1750. He was one of the most experienced and exact soldiers in the army of Frederick the Great. He commanded a wing in the battle of Lobositz in 1756, and defeated the Austrians under Marshal Konigsegg in a well-fought battle at Reichenberg on the 21st of April 1757. He took part in the battles of Prague and Kolin and the retreat to Gorlitz, and subsequently cornmanded the Prussians left behind by Frederick in the autumn of 1757 when he marched against the French. Bevern conducted a defensive campaign against overwhelming numbers with great skill, but he soon lost the valuable assistance of General Winterfeld, who was killed in a skirmish at Moys; and he was eventually brought to battle and suffered a heavy defeat at Breslau on the 22nd of November. He fell into the hands of the Austrians on the following morning, and remained prisoner for a year. He was made general of infantry in 1759, and on the rrth of August1762 inflicted a severe defeat at Reichenbach on an Austrian army endeavouring to relieve Schweidnitz. Bevern retired, after the peace of Hubertusburg, to his government of Stettin, where he died in 1781.
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