See also:born at Manbij (
See also:Hierapolis) in
See also:Syria, between
See also:Aleppo and the
See also:Euphrates . Like
See also:Abu Tammam, he was of the tribe of Tai . While still
See also:young, he went to visit Abu Tammam at Horns, and by him was commended to the authorities at Ma'arrat un-Nu'mdn, who gave him a pension of 4000 dirhems (about £90) yearly . Later he went to
See also:Bagdad, where he wrote verses in praise of the
See also:caliph Motawakkil and of the members of his
See also:court . Although long
See also:resident in Bagdad he devoted much of his
See also:poetry to the praise of Aleppo, and much of his love-poetry is dedicated to Alwa, a
See also:maiden of that city . He died at Manbij Hierapolis in 897 . His poetry was collected and edited twice in the loth century, arranged in one edition alphabetically (i.e. according to the last consonant in each
See also:line); in the other according to subjects . It was published in Constantinople (A.D . 1883) . Like Abu Tammam he made a collection of early poems, known as the Hamasa (
See also:index of the poems contained in it, in the Journal of the German
See also:Oriental Society, vol . 47, pp . 418 if., cf. vol .
45, . PP. iogoBiography in M'G. de Slane's
See also:translation of
See also:Ibn Khallikan's
See also:Dictionary (
See also:Paris and
See also:London, 1842), vol. iii. pp . 657 ff . ; and in the
See also:Book of Songs (see ABULFARAT), vol. xviii. pp . 167-175 . (G . W . T.) BUILDERS'
See also:RITES . Many
See also:familiar with the ceremonies attendant on the laying of foundation stones, whether ecclesiastical, masonic or otherwise, may be at a loss to account for the actual origin of the
See also:custom in placing within a cavity beneath the
See also:stone, a few coins of the
See also:newspapers, &c . The ordinary view that by such means particulars may be found of the event on the removal of the stone hereafter, may suffice as respects latter-
See also:day motives, but such memorials are deposited in the hope that they will never be disturbed, and so another reason must be found for such an
See also:ancient survival . Whilst old customs continue, the reasons for them are ever changing, and certainly this fact applies to laying foundation stones . Originally, it appears that living victims were selected as " a sacrifice to the gods," and especially to ensure the stability of the
See also:building .
See also:Grimm' remarks "It was often thought necessary to immure live animals and even men in the foundation, on which the structure was to be raised, to secure immovable stability." There is no lack of evidence as to this gruesome practice, both in savage and civilized communities . " The old
See also:pagan laid the foundation of his
See also:house and fortress in
See also:blood."' Under the walls of two
See also:round towers in
See also:Ireland (the only ones examined) human skeletons have been discovered . In the 15th century, the
See also:wall of Holsworthy
See also:church was built over a living human being, and when this became unlawful, images of living beings were substituted (Folk-Lore Journal, i . 23-24) . The best succinct account of these rites is to be obtained in G . W . Speth's Builders' Rites and Ceremonies (1893) . (W . J .
JOHANN GOTTLIEB BUHLE (1763-1821)
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