EASTERN BULGARIA , formerly a powerful
See also:kingdom which existed from the 5th to the 15th century on the
See also:Volga, in the
See also:present territory of the provinces of
See also:Saratov and N .
See also:Astrakhan, perhaps extending also into
See also:Perm . The
See also:Bolgari near Kanzan, surrounded by numerous
See also:graves in which most interesting archaeological finds have been made, occupies the site of one of the cities—perhaps the capital—of that
See also:extinct kingdom . The
See also:history, Tarikh Bulgar, said to have been written in the 12th century by an Arabian
See also:cadi of the city Bolgari, has not yet been discovered; but the Arabian historians,
See also:Ibn Foslan, Ibn Haukal, Abul Hamid Andalusi,
See also:Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several others, who had visited the kingdom, beginning with the loth century, have'
See also:left descriptions of it . The Bulgars of the Volga were of
See also:Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements . In the 5th century they attacked the Russians in the Black
See also:Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the Greeks . In 922, when they were converted to
See also:Islam, Ibn Foslan found them not quite nomadic, and already having some permanent settlements and houses in
See also:wood .
See also:Stone houses were built soon after that by Arabian architects . Ibn Dasta found amongst them
See also:agriculture besides
See also:cattle breeding .
See also:Trade with
See also:Persia and India, as also with the
See also:Khazars and the Russians, and undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, their chief occupation, their
See also:main riches being furs,
See also:leather, wool, nuts,
See also:wax and so on . After their conversion to Islam they began
See also:building forts, several of which are mentioned in
See also:annals . Their chief
See also:town, Bolgari or Velikij Gorod (
See also:Great Town) of the Russian annals, was often raided by the Russians .
In the 13th century it was conquerg1 by the
See also:Mongols, and became for a
See also:time the seat of the khans: :>f.. the
See also:Horde . In the second
See also:half of the 15th century Bolgari became
See also:part of the Kazan kingdom, lost its commercial and
See also:political importance, and was annexed to Russia after the fall of Kazan . (P . A .
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