BURMA , aprovince of
See also:British India, including the former
See also:kingdom of
See also:independent Burma, as well as British Burma, acquired by the British
See also:government in the two
See also:wars of 1826 and 1852 . It is divided into Upper and
See also:Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st
See also:January 1886 . The province lies to the east of the
See also:Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of
See also:country extending from the Pakchan
See also:river in 90 55'
See also:north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and Tooth degrees of east longitude . The extreme length from north to south is almost 1200 m., and the broadest
See also:part, which is in about latitude 210 north, is 575 M. from east to west . On the N. it is bounded by the dependent state of
See also:Manipur, by the
See also:Mishmi hills, and by portions of
See also:Chinese territory; on the E. by the Chinese Shan States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of Indo-
See also:China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S. by the Siamese
See also:Malay States and the Bay of Bengal; and on the W. by the Bay of Bengal and
See also:Chittagong . The
See also:line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf, in the
See also:district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 M . The
See also:area of the province is estimated at 238,738 sq. m., of which Burma proper occupies 168,573 sq. m., the
See also:Chin hills 10,250 sq. m., and the Shan States, which comprise the whole of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq. m . Natural Divisions.—The province falls into three natural divisions:
See also:Arakan with the Chin hills, the
See also:basin, and the old province of
See also:Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and
See also:Karen-ni states in the basin of the
See also:Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong . Of these Arakan is a
See also:strip of country lying on the seaward slopes of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas . It stretches from Cape Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and
See also:Assam on the north, and includes the districts of
See also:Kyaukpyu, Akyab and
See also:northern Arakan, an area of some 18,540 sq. m . The northern part of this
See also:tract is barren hilly country, but in the west and south are
See also:rich alluvial plains containing some of the most fertile lands of the province . Northwards lie the Chin and some part of the Kachin hills .
To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from it by the Arakan Yomas, lies the
See also:body of Burma in the basin of the Irrawaddy . This tract falls into four subdivisions . First, there is the highland tract including the hilly country at the
See also:sources of the Chindwin and the upper
See also:waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin,
See also:Myitkyina and
See also:Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a
See also:great part of the Northern Shan states . In the Shan States there are a few open plateaus, fertile and well populated, and
See also:Maymyo in the
See also:Mandalay district, the
See also:hill-station to which in the hot
See also:weather the government of Burma migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin
See also:plateau, some 3500 ft. above the
See also:sea . But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest
See also:rivers are confined . The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes the:whole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the
See also:Southern Shan States . It stretches along both sides of the Irrawaddy from the north of Mandalay to
See also:Thayetmyo, and embraces the Lower Chindwin,
See also:Sagaing, Mandalay,
See also:Meiktila, Yamethin,
See also:Pakokku and
See also:Minbu districts . This tract consists mostly of undulating lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the
See also:Pegu Yomas, a considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the Irrawaddy basin . On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas, stretches the Irrawaddy
See also:delta, a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq. m. in area falling in a gradual unbroken slope from its
See also:apex not far south of
See also:Prome down to the sea . This delta, which includes the districtc of Bassei , Mvaungmya . Thnnawa . Henz da, Hantha-waddy,
See also:Tharrawaddy, Pegu and
See also:town, consists almost entirely of a rich alluvial deposit, and the whole area, which between Cape Negrais and
See also:Elephant Point is 137 M. wide, is fertile in the highest degree .
To the east lies a tract of country which, though geographically a part of the Irrawaddy basin, is cut off from it by the Yomas, and forms a
See also:system draining into the Sittang river . The northern portion of this tract, which on the east touches the basin of the Salween river, is hilly; the
See also:remainder towards the confluence of the Salween, Gyaing and Attaran rivers consists of broad fertile plains . The whole is comprised in the districts of
See also:Toungoo and
See also:Thaton, part of the Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of Amherst, which
See also:form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative division . The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with
See also:Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown . It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards Siam . It comprises the districts of
See also:Mergui and
See also:Tavoy and a part of Amherst, and includes also the Mergui
See also:Archipelago . The
See also:surface of this part of the country is mountainous and much intersected with streams . Northward from this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States, Mountains.—Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a
See also:wall of
See also:mountain ranges . The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the Chin and Naga hills . They then form part of a system of ranges which
See also:curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the jade and
See also:Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river . On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween
See also:gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern
See also:watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam . The highest
See also:peak of the Arakan Yomas, Liklang, rises nearly ,o,000 ft. above the sea, and in the eastern Kachin hills, which run northwards from the state of Mong Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a height of 11,2oo ft. above the sea .
The Kumon range
See also:running down from the Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft . There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft. and Loi
See also:Ling in the Northern Shan States reaches 9000 ft . Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas assume the proportions of mere hills . Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 ft., but it is interesting mainly as an
See also:volcano, a landmark and an
See also:object of superstitious
See also:folklore, throughout the whole of Central Burma . Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains, resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma . They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which over-flows at frequent intervals whenever a
See also:discharge of
See also:gas occurs . Spurs of the Chin hills run down the whole length of the Lower Chindwin district, almost to Sagaing, and one hill, Powindaung, is particularly noted on account of its innumerable cave temples, which are said to hold no fewer than 446444 images of
See also:Buddha . Huge caves, of which the most noted are the
See also:Farm Caves, occur in the hills near Moulmein, and they too are full of
See also:relics of their
See also:ancient use as temples, though now they are chiefly visited in connexion with the bats, whose
See also:flight viewed from a distance, as they issue from the caves, resembles a
See also:cloud of
See also:smoke . Rivers.—Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important . It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India,
See also:Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length . Two rivers, the Mali and the N'
See also:meeting about latitude 25' 45' some 150 m. north of Bhamo, contribute chiefly to its
See also:volume, and during the dry weather it is navigable for steamers up to their confluence . Up to Bhamo, a distance of 900 M. from the sea, it is navigable throughout the
See also:year, and its chief tributary in Burma, the Chindwin, is also navigable for steamers for 300 M. from its junction with the Irrawaddy at Pakokku .
The Chindwin, called in its upper reaches the Tanai, rises in the hills south-west of Thama, and flows due north till it enters the south-east corner of the Hukawng valley, where it turns north-west and continues in that direction cutting the valley into two almost equal parts until it reaches its north-west range, when it turns almost due south and takes the name of the Chindwin . It is aswift clear river, fed in its upper reaches by numerous mountain streams . The Mogaung river, rising in the watershed which divides the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin drainages, flows south and south-east for 18o m. before it joins the Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for about four months in the year . South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that
See also:spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the
See also:tide is first
See also:felt, and the delta may be said to begin . The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose . There is, however, one true river of some
See also:size, the Hlaing, which rises near Prome, flows southwards and meets the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek near Rangoon, and thus forms the estuary which is known as the Rangoon river and constitutes the
See also:harbour of Rangoon . East of the Rangoon river and still within the deltaic area, though cut off from the main delta by the southern end of the Pegu Yomas, lies the mouth of the Sittang . This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district . At Toungoo it is narrow, but below Shwegyin it widens, and at Sittang it is
See also:half a mile broad . It flows into the Gulf of
See also:Martaban, and near its mouth its course is constantly changing owing to erosion and corresponding accretions . The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa . It is in all probability actually longer than the Irrawaddy, but it is not to be compared to that river in importance .
It is, in fact, walled in on eitherside, with
See also:banks varying in British territory from 3000 to 6000 ft. high and at
See also:present unnavigable owing to serious rapids in Lower Burma and at one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to
See also:traffic for considerable reaches in its
See also:middle course . The Gyaing and the Attaran rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma . Lakes.—The largest lake in the province is Indawgyi in the Myitkyina district . It has an area of nearly 100 sq. m. and is surrounded on three sides by ranges of hills, but is open to the north where it has an outlet in the Indaw river . In the
See also:highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw which covers some 6o m . Other lakes are the Paunglin lake in Minbu district, the Inma lake in Prome, the Tu and Duya in
See also:Henzada, the Shahkegyi and the Inyegyi in
See also:Bassein, the sacred lake at Ye in Tenasserim, and the Nagamauk, Panzemyaung and WalonbyaninArakan . The Meiktila lake covers an area of some 5 sq. m., but it is to some extent at least an artificial
See also:reservoir . In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes abounding in
See also:fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during the
See also:season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or disappear altogether in the dry season .
See also:Climate.—The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter physique of the
See also:people of the lower province as compared with the inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where there is a great infusion of other types of the Tibeto-Burman
See also:family . North of the apex of the delta and the boundary between the deltaic and inland tracts, the rainfall gradually lessens as far as Minbu, where what was formerly called the rainless zone commences and extends as far as Katha . The rainfall in the coast districts varies from about 200 in. in the Arakan and Tenasserim divisions to an
See also:average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining portion of the Irrawaddy delta . In the extreme north of Upper Burma the rainfall is rather less than in the country adjoining Rangoon, and in the dry zone the
See also:annual average falls as low as 20 and 30 in .
The temperature varies almost as much as the rainfall . It is highest in the central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Mandalay and Shwebo in the
See also:month of May being close on too F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten degrees less . The mean of the minimum readings in
See also:December in the central zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F. and in the littoral districts a few degrees over that figure . In the hilly district of Mog8k (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maxi-mum 79° . The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate . In the shade and off the ground the thermometer rarely rises above 8o° F. or falls below 25° F . In the hot season and in the
See also:sun as much as 15o° F. is registered, and on the grass in the
See also:cold weather ten degrees of
See also:frost are not uncommon .
See also:Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country . In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches too° F. regularly for several
See also:weeks in
See also:April . The rainfall in the hills varies very considerably, but seems to range from about 6o in. in the broader valleys to about too in. on the higher
See also:forest-clad ranges . Geology.—Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an eastern and a western . The dividing line runs from the mouth of the Sittang river along the railway to Mandalay, and thence continues northward, with the same general direction but curving slightly towards the east .
See also:Nest of this line the rocks are chiefly
See also:Tertiary and
See also:Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic . In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into839 a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward . There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the
See also:Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene . Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone . The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the
See also:identification of the system rests on the
See also:discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite . The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites . The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan
See also:fauna . The Pliccene, on the other
See also:hand, is of
See also:freshwater origin, and contains silicified
See also:wood and numerous remains of Mammalia .
See also:Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a
See also:period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward . The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known .
See also:Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein . Volcanic rocks are not
See also:common in any part of Burma, but about 50 m. north-north-east of Yenangyaung the extinct volcano of Popa rises to a height of 3000 ft. above the surrounding Pliocene plain .
Intrusions of a
See also:rock break through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in the western ranges . Whether the mud " volcanoes" of the Irrawaddy valley have any connexion with volcanic activity may be doubted . The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known
See also:fields being that of Yenangyaung .
See also:Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim . Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and
See also:silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States . The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.' Population.—The total population of Burma in 1901 Was 10,490,624 as against 7,722,053 in 1891; but a considerable portion of this large increase was due to the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills in the
See also:census area . Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase during the
See also:decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8 % . The
See also:density of population per square mile is 44 as compared with 167 for the whole of India and 552 for the Bengal Delta . England and
See also:Wales have a population more than twelve times as dense as that of Burma, so there is still
See also:room for expansion . The chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens (717,859),
See also:Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings (321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills, The Burmese in
See also:person have the Mongoloid characteristics common to the Indo-Chinese races, the Tibetans and tribes of the Eastern
See also:Himalaya . They may be generally described as of a stout, active, well-proportioned form; of a
See also:brown but never of an intensely dark complexion, with black, coarse, lank and abundant hair, and a little more
See also:beard than is possessed by the Siamese . Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been called " the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat inclined to laziness .
Since theadvent of the British power, the immigration of
See also:Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business
See also:instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country . As compared with the
See also:Hindu, the Burmese
See also:silk instead of
See also:cotton, and eat
See also:rice instead of the cheaper grains; they are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less
See also:practical character . The Burmese
See also:women have a keener business instinct than the men, and serve in some degree to redress the
See also:balance . The Burmese
See also:children are adored by their parents, and are said to be the happiest and merriest children in the
See also:world . Language and Literature.—The Burmese are supposed by
See also:modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the
See also:head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to
See also:press southwards into the See also, for geology, W . Theobald, " On the Geology of Pegu," Mem . Geol . Surv . India, vol. x. pt. ii . (1874) ; F . Noetling, " The Development and Subdivision of the Tertiary System in Burma," Rec . Geol .
Surv . India, vol.
See also:xxviii . (1895), pp . 59-86, pl. ii.; F . Noetling, " The Occurrence of Petroleum in Burma, and its Technical Exploitation," Mem . Geol . Surv . India, vol.
See also:xxvii. pt. ii . (1898) . plains of Burma . The indigenous tongues of Burma are divided into the following groups: A . Indo-Chinese (I) Tibet-Burman (a) The Burmese
See also:group .
family sub-family (b) The Kachin group . (c) The Kuki-Chin group . (2) Siamese-Chinese (d) The Tai group . sub-family (e) The Karen group . (3) M6n-
See also:Annam (f) The Upper Middle Me- sub-family
See also:kong or Wa Palaung group . (g) The North Cambodian group . (h) The Selung language . Burmese, which was spoken by 7,006,495 people in the province in 1901, is a monosyllabic language, with, according to some authorities, three different tones; so that any given syllable may have three entirely different meanings only distinguishable by the intonation when spoken, or by accents or diacritical marks when written . There are, however, very many weighty authorities who deny the existence of tones in the language . The Burmese
See also:alphabet is borrowed from the
See also:Sanskrit through the
See also:Pali of Upper India . The language is written from
See also:left to right in what appears to be an unbroken line . Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese .
The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from
See also:Ceylon and southern India . The Burmese literature is fof the most part metrical, and consists of religious romances,
See also:chronological histories and songs . The Maha Yazawin or " Royal
See also:Chronicle," forms the great
See also:work of Burma . This is an authorized
See also:history, in which everything unflattering to the Burmese monarchs was rigidly suppressed . After the Second Burmese War no record was ever made in the Yazawin that Pegu had been torn away from Burma by the British . The folk songs are the truest and most interesting
See also:national literature . The Burmese are fond of stage-plays in which great licence of language is permitted, and great liberty to " gag " is left to the wit or intelligence of the actors . Government.—The province as a division of the Indian
See also:empire is administered by a
See also:governor, first appointed 1st May 1897, with a legislative council of nine members, five of whom are officials . There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public
See also:works department secretary with two assistants . The revenue ad-ministration of the province is superintended by a
See also:commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of
See also:land records and
See also:agriculture, with a land records departmental
See also:staff . There is a chief
See also:court for the province with a chief
See also:justice and three justices, established in May 1900 . Other purely judicial
See also:officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the
See also:judges of Mandalay and Moulmein .
There are four commissioners of revenue andcircuit, and nineteen
See also:deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma . There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant
See also:superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese
See also:political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service . The
See also:police are under the
See also:control of an inspector-general, with deputy inspector-general for civil and military police, and for supply and clothing . The
See also:education department is under a director of public instruction, and there are three circles—eastern, western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of
See also:schools . The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator, with twenty-one deputy conservators . There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief
See also:collector of customs, three collectors and four
See also:port officers, and an inspector-general of jails . At the
See also:principal towns benches of honorary magistrates,exercising
See also:powers of various degrees, have been constituted . There are
See also:forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma . The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers . They are responsible to the lieutenant-governor, each in his own division, for the working of every department of the public service, except the military department, and the branches of the administration directly under the control of the supreme government . The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the
See also:miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government . Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myo6ks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold
See also:charge of the townships, as the units of
See also:regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped .
Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most
See also:direct contact with the people . Finally, there are the
See also:village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old
See also:custom . Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of blocks . In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors . The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively
See also:recent origin, and is modelled on the village system . The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification in 1886 . The Shan States
See also:Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The chats state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad states . or patent granted to him . The
See also:law to be administered in each state is the customary law of the state, so far as it is in accordance with the justice,
See also:equity and
See also:conscience, and not opposed to the spirit of the law in the
See also:rest of British India . The superintendents exercise general control over the administration of criminal justice, and have power to
See also:call for cases, and to exercise wide revisionary powers . Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the
See also:defendant is a
See also:European, or
See also:American, or a government servant, or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents . Neither the superintendents nor the assistant superintendents have power to try civil suits, whether the parties are Shans or not .
See also:Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law4n force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or
See also:petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class . The chiefs of the Shan States are of three classes:—(f) sawbwas; (2) myosas; (3) ngwegunhmus . The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma . There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the Shan States proper . Two sawbwas are under the supervision of the commissioner of the Mandalay division, and two under the commissioner of the Sagaing division . The states vary enormously in size, from the 12,000 sq. m. of the Trans-Salween State of Keng Tung, to the 3.95 sq. m. of Nam Hk6m in the Myelat . The latter contained only 41 houses with 210 inhabitants in 1897 and has since been merged in the adjoining state . There are five states, all sawbwaships, under the supervision of the superintendent of the northern Shan States, besides an indeterminate number of Wa States and communities of other races beyond the Salween river . The superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises
See also:thirty-nine, of which ten are sawbwaships . The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at
See also:Lashio, of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi . The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the
See also:laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States . The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative control .
The tribes are not interfered with aslong as they keep the peace . What is specifically known as the Kachin hills, the country taken under administration in the Bhamo and Myitkyina districts, is divided into forty tracts . Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Mong-Mit, and the northern Shan States, but though they are often the preponderating, they are not the exclusive population . The country within the forty tracts may be considered the Kachin hills proper, and it lies between 23° 30' and 26° 30' N.
See also:lat. and 96° and 98° E. long . Within this area the petty chiefs have
See also:appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the
See also:rate of tribute per
See also:household is fixed in each case . Government is regulated by the B . Malay family Kachin hills regulation . Since 1894 the country has been practically undisturbed, and large numbers of Kachins are enlisted, and ready to enlist in the military police, and seem likely to form as good troops as the Gurkhas of
See also:Nepal . The Chin hills were not declared an integral part of Burma until 1895, but they now form a scheduled district . The chiefs, however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin hills . Religion.—Buddhists make up more than 88.6%; Mussulmans 3.28; spirit-worshippers 3.85; Hindus 2.76, and Christians 1.42 of the total population of the province . The large nominal
See also:pro-portion of Buddhists is deceptive .
The Burmese are really as de-voted to demonolatry as the hill-tribes who are labelled plain spirit-worshippers . The actual figures of the various religions, according to the census of 1901, are as follows: Buddhists . . 9,184,121 Sikhs .. 6,596 Spirit-worshippers . 399,390Jews .. 685 Hindus . . . . 285,484
See also:Parsees .. 245 Mussulmans . . . 339,446 Others .. 28 Christians .
. . 147,525 The chief religious principle of the Burmese is to acquire merit for their next incarnation by good works done in this
See also:life . The bestowal of
See also:alms, offerings of rice to priests, the founding of a monastery, erection of pagodas, with which the country is crowded, the
See also:building of a
See also:bridge or rest-
See also:house for the convenience of travellers are all works of religious merit, prompted, not by love of one's
See also:fellow-creatures, but simply and solely for one's own future
See also:advantage . An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess
See also:Christianity, and there are about the same number of I\lahommedans among them . It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens . It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the greatest progress in Christianity has been made, and the number of spirit-worshippers among them is very much smaller . The number of Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo . These Christians returned themselves as Burmese . The forms of Christianity which make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and
See also:Roman Catholic faiths . Of recent years many
See also:con-versions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or MuhsS hill tribesmen . Education.—Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of the countries of
See also:Europe, Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those able to both read and write . Taking the'sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the
See also:matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India .
The average number of eachsex in Burma per thousand is:—literates, male 378;
See also:female, 45; illiterates, male, 622; female, 955 . The number of literates per thousand in Bengal is: male, 104; female, 5 . The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates . The fact that in Upper Burma the proportion of literates is nearly as high as, and the proportion of those under instruction even higher than, that of the corresponding classes in Lower Burma, is a clear
See also:proof that in
See also:primary education, at least, the
See also:credit for the superiority of the Burman over the native of India is due to indigenous schools . In almost every village in the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one or more of the
See also:resident pongyis, or Buddhist monks, is the instruction
See also:free of charge of the children of the village . The standard of instruction, however, is very low, consisting only of
See also:reading and writing, though this is gradually being improved in very many monasteries . The
See also:absence of all
See also:prejudice in favour of the seclusion of women also is one of the main reasons why in this province the proportion who can read and write is higher than in any other part of India,
See also:Cochin alone excepted . It was not till 1890 that the education department took
See also:action in Upper Burma . It was then ascertained that there were 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and 1664 private schools with 8685 pupils . It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were
See also:Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught . There are three circles—Eastern, Central and Upper Burma . For the
See also:special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in
See also:lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputy-inspector or a sub-inspector of schools .
There are nine
See also:standards of instruction,and the classes in schools correspond with these standards . In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no
See also:cess as in Lower Burma . Grants-in-aid are given according to results . There is only one
See also:college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the
See also:Calcutta University . There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States . A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually .
See also:gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871—1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.I,21,70,530 was from imperial
See also:taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.1o,90,790 from
See also:local funds . The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230 . In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres . The land tax is supplemented by a
See also:poll tax on the male population from 18 to 6o years of age, with the exception of immigrants during the first five years of their residence, religious teachers, schoolmasters, government servants and those unable to obtain their own livelihood . In 189o–1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds . The
See also:expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870–1871 was Rs.49,70,020 .
In 189o–1891 it was Rs.1,58,48,o41 . In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by
See also:King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it . For the purpose of the assessment every district and town is classified according to its general
See also:wealth and prosperity . As a
See also:rule the basis of calculation was
See also:loo rupees from every ten houses, with a Io% deduction for those exempted by custom . When the total amount payable by the village was thus determined, the village itself settled the amount to be paid by each individual householder . This was done by thamadis, assessors, usually appointed by the villagers themselves . Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as
See also:fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes . In 1886–1887, the year after the annexation, the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twenty-two lakhs of rupees . In the following year it had risen to fifty lakhs . Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890 . The figures for 1890–1891, therefore, show the first really regular collection . The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 .
The total revenue of Burma in the year ending
See also:March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298 . The total expenditure in the same years respectively was Rs.4,3o,81,000 and Rs.5,66,6o,o47 . The principal items of revenue in the
See also:budget are the land revenue,
See also:railways, customs, forests and
See also:excise . Defence.—Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army, consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general . Of the native regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police . These regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma . In addition to these there are about 13,500 civil police and 15,000 military police . The military police are in reality a regular military force with only two European officers in command of each
See also:battalion; and they are recruited entirely from among the warlike races of northern India . A small battalion of Karens enlisted as sappers and miners proved a failure and had to be disbanded . Experiments have also been made with the Kachin hillmen and with the Shans; but the Burmese character is so averse to discipline and control in petty matters that it is impossible to get really suitable men to enlist even in the civil police . The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port Defence
See also:Volunteers, comprising
See also:naval, and engineer
See also:corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles . Minerals and
See also:Mining.—In its three chief
See also:mineral products,
See also:earth-oil, coal and gold, Burma offers a
See also:field for enterprise and nothing more .
Without yielding fortunes for speculatoi's, like SouthAfrica or
See also:Australia, it returns a fair percentage upon genuine hard work . Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage . The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a
See also:company at one
See also:time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods . The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma . The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China . The mines are situated beyond Kamaing, north of Mogaung in the Myitkyina district . The miners are all Kachins, and the right to collect the jade
See also:duty of 331 is farmed out by government to a lessee, who has hitherto always been a Chinaman . The amount obtained has varied considerably . In 1887–1888 the
See also:rent was Rs.5o,o00 . This dwindled to Rs.36,000 in 1892–1893, but the system was then adopted of letting for a
See also:term of three years and a higher rent was obtained . The value varies enormously according to
See also:colour, which should be a particular shade of dark
See also:green . Semi-transparency, brilliancy and hardness are, however, also essentials .
The old river mines produced the best quality . The
See also:quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good . The most important ruby-bearing area is the Mogok
See also:stone tract. in the hills about 60 m. east of the Irrawaddy and 90 M. north-north-west of Mandalay . The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to
See also:levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent 4 RS.3,15,000 a year plus a
See also:share of the profits . The rent was reduced permanently in 1898 to Rs.2,00,000 a year, but the share of the profits taken by government was increased from 20 to 30% . There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay .district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.to a month . They are, however, only moderately successful . Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing
See also:industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture . There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the
See also:quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes . Work was begun in 1895, and the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz. in 1896–1897 . This, however, proved to be merely a
See also:pocket, and the mine is now shut down . Dredging for gold, however, seems likely to prove very profitable and gold dust is found in practically every river in the hills .
The principal seats of the petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe, and Yenangyat in the Pakokku districts . The
See also:wells have been worked for a little over a century by the natives of the country . The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or
See also:cable system, and the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important . Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil
See also:resin is not very good . The amount exported varies considerably .
See also:Tourmaline or
See also:rubellite is found on the
See also:borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long . Steatite is extracted from the Arakan hill quarries .
See also:Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of
See also:Thibaw . Iron is found in many parts of the hills, and is worked by inhabitants of the country . A good
See also:deal is extracted and manufactured into native implements at Pang Long in the
See also:Legya (Laihka) Shan State . Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States . The ore is rich in silver as well as in lead .
Agriculture.—The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma . Only 9.4% of the people were classed asurban in the census of 1901, and a considerable pro-portion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese . Nearly two-thirds of the total population are directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture and kindred occupations . Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables . The
See also:food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions,
See also:turmeric, boiled vegetables, and occasionally
See also:meat of some sort from elephant flesh down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except
See also:snakes, by way of condiment . The
See also:crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice . In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable . Throughout the whole of the moister parts of the province the agricultural season is the wet period of-the south-west monsoon, lasting from the middle of May until
See also:November . In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the
See also:spring months . Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with
See also:soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands . As rice has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the reputation of being a somewhat indolent
See also:cultivator . The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops .
Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise
See also:maize, tilseed,
See also:cane, cotton,
See also:tobacco, wheat,
See also:millet, other food grains including
See also:pulse, condiments and spices,
See also:linseed and other oil-seeds, various
See also:indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and
See also:garden produce . At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended . In addition to this the Mandalay Canal, 40 M. in length, with fourteen distributaries was opened in 1902; the Shwebo canal, 27 M. long, was opened in 1906, and a beginning had been made of two branches 29 and 20 M. in length, and of the Mon canal, begun in 1904, 53 M. in length . In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to irrigation under these schemes . On the whole the people of Burma are prosperous and contented . Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are
See also:constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts . Compared with the congested districts in the other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the Burman is decidedly enviable . Forests.—The forests of Burma are the finest in British India andone of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of
See also:teak for
See also:shipbuilding, and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma . At the close of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable
See also:timber; and it was trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third Burmese War of 1885 . Since the introduction of iron
See also:ships teak has supplanted
See also:oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and
See also:steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak . The forests of Burma, therefore, are now strictly preserved by the government, and there is a regular forest department for the conservation and cutting of timber, the planting of
See also:young trees for future generations, the prevention of forest fires, and for generally supervising their treatment by the natives . In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home
See also:consumption .
There are naturally very many trees in these forests besides the teak . In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz
See also:Kurz in his Forest
See also:Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 15oo
See also:species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably . In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india
See also:rubber, pyingado, or
See also:ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk . Outside these reserves enormous tracts of forest and
See also:jungle still remain for clearance and cultivation, reservation being mostly confined to forest land unsuitable for crops . In 1870—1871 the state reserved forests covered only 133 sq. m., in all the Rangoon division . The total receipts from the forests then amounted to Rs.7,72,400 . In 1889–1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq. m., and the gross revenue was Rs . 31,34,720, and the expenditure was Rs . 13,31,930 . The work of the forest department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891 . At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq. m . On 30th
See also:June 1896 the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq. m .
At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq. m., and in 1903–1904 to 20,038 sq. m. with a revenue of Rs . 85,19,404 and expenditure amounting to Rs.35,00,311 . In 1905–1906 there were 20,545 sq. m. of reserved forest, and it is probable that when the work of reservation is
See also:complete there will be 25,000 sq. m. of preserves or 12 % of the total area .
See also:Fisheries.—Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907 . The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year .
See also:Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-
See also:shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries—called In—which are from time to time sold by
See also:auction for fixed periods of years . Salted fish forms, along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a very sound basis . There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since de-parted; and now they are leased in blocks to a
See also:syndicate of China-men, who
See also:grant sub-leases to individual adventurers at the rate of £25 a
See also:pump for the pearling year . The chief
See also:harvest is of
See also:mother of pearl, which suffices to pay the working expenses; and there is over and above the
See also:chance of finding a pearl of price . Some pearls worth £loon and upwards have recently been discovered . Manufactures and
See also:Art.—The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the by-season . In addition to rice-growing and the
See also:felling and extraction of timber, and the fisheries, the chief occupations are rice-husking, silk-
See also:weaving and dyeing .
The introduction of cheap cottons and silk fabrics has dealt a
See also:blow to hand-weaving, while aniline dyes are
See also:driving out the native
See also:vegetable product; but both
See also:industries still linger in the rural tracts . The best silk-weavers are to be found at Amarapura . There large numbers of people follow this occupation as their
See also:sole means of livelihood, whereas silk and cotton weaving throughout the province generally is carried on by girls and women while unoccupied by other domestic duties . The Burmese are fond of bright
See also:colours, and
See also:pink and yellow harmonize well with their dark
See also:olive complexion, but even here the influence of western
See also:civilization is being felt, and in the towns the tendency now is towards maroon, brown, olive and dark green for the women's skirts . The total number of persons engaged in the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901 was 419,007 . The chief dye-product of Burma is cutch, a brown dye obtained from the wood Year . Imports . Exports . Total . 1871-1872 Rs . 3,15,79,860 Rs . 3,78,02,170 Rs .
6,93,82;030 1881-1882 6,38,49,840 8,05,71:410 14,44,21,250 1891-1892 10,50,06,247 12,67,21,878 23,17,28,125 1901-1902 12,78,46,636 18,74,47,200 31,52,93,836 1904-1905 17,06,20,796 23,94, 69,114 41,00,89,910 of the eight commissionerships and Lashio,the capital of the northern Shan States, have communication with each other by railway, but Taung-gyi and the southern Shan States can still only be reached by a hill-road through difficult country forcart traffic, and the head-quarters of three commissionerships, Moulmein, Akyab and Minbu, have no railway communication with Rangoon . Arakan is in the worst position of all, for it is connected with Burma by neither
See also:rail-way nor river, nor even by a metalled road, and the only way to reach Akyab from Rangoon is once a week by sea . Law.—The British government has administered the law in Burma on principles identical with those which have been adopted elsewhere in the British dominions in India . That portion of the law which is usually described as Anglo-Indian law (see INDIAN LAW) is generally applicable to Burma, though there are certain districts inhabited by tribes in a backward state of civilization which are excepted from its operation . Acts of the British parliament
See also:relating to India generally would be applicable to Burma, whether passed before or after its annexation, these acts being considered applicable to all the dominions of the
See also:crown in India . As regards the acts of the governor-. general in council passed for India generally—they, too, were from the first applicable to Lower Burma; and they have all been declared applicable to Upper Burma also by the Burma Laws Act of 1898 . That portion of the
See also:English law which has been introduced into India without legislation, and all the rules of law resting upon the authority of the courts, are made applicable to Burma by the same act . But consistently with the practice which has always prevailed in India, there is a large field of law in Burma which the British government has not attempted to disturb . It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession,
See also:marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature . The reservation thus made in favour of the native laws is precisely analogous to the similar reservation made in India (see INDIAN LAw, where the Hindu law and the Mahommedan Law are described) . The Buddhist law is contained in certain sacred books called Dhammathats . The laws themselves are derived from one of the collections which Hindus attribute to Manu, but in some respects they now widely differ from the ancient Hindu law so far as it is known to us .
There is no certainty as to the date or method of their introduction . The whole of the law administered now in Burma rests ultimately upon statutory authority; and all the Indian acts relating to Burma, whether of the governor-general or the lieutenant-governor of Burma in council, will be found in the Burma
See also:Code (Calcutta,
See also:Internal Communications.—In 1871-1872 there were 814 m. of 1899), and in the supplements to that volume which are published road in Lower Burma, but the chief means of internal communication from time to time at Rangoon . There is no complete
See also:translation was by
See also:water . Steamers plied on the Irrawaddy as far as Thayetmyo . The vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company now ply to Bassein of the Dhammathats, but a good many of them have been trans-and to all points on the Irrawaddy as far north as Bhamo, and in lated . An account of these
See also:translations will be found in The the dry weather to Myitkyina, and also on the Chindwin as far north principles of Buddhist Law by Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), as Kindat, and to Homalin during the rains . The Arakan Flotilla which is the first attempt to present those principles in something Company has also helped to open up the Arakan division . The length of roads has not greatly increased in Lower Burma, but there approaching to a systematic form . has been a great deal of road constuction in Upper Burma . At the History.—It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of end of the year 1904-1905 there were in the whole province 7486 m .
See also:Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic of road, 1516 m. of which were metalled and 317o unmetalled, with Pali title assigned to the country
See also:round the capital in Burmese 2799 M. of other tracks . But the chief advance in communications documents .
The royal history traces the lineage of the
See also:kings to has been in railway construction . The first railway from Rangoon to Prome, 161 m., was opened in '897, and that from Rangoon to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of India . This no doubt is Toungoo, 166 m., was opened in 1884 . Since the annexation of fabulous, but it is hard to say how early communication with Upper Burma this has been extended to Mandalay, and the Mu Gangetic India began . From the rrth to the 13th century the Valley railway has been constructed from Sagaing to Myitkyina, a old Burman empire was at the height of its power, and to this distance of 752 m. from Rangoon . The Mandalay-Lashio railway has been completed, and trains run from Mandalay to Lashio, a period belong the splendid remains of architecture at
See also:Pagan. distance of 178 m . The Sagaing-Menywa-AlSn branch and the The city and the
See also:dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Meiktila-Myingyan branch were opened to traffic during 1900 . Mongol) invasion('284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan . After In 1902 a railway from Henzada to Bassein was formed and a con- necting
See also:link with the Prome line from Henzada to Letpadan was that the empire fell to a low ebb, and Central Burma was often opened in 1903 . Railways were also constructed from Pegu to subject to Shan dynasties . In the early part of the '6th century Martaban, 121 m. in length, and from Henzada to Kyang-in, 66 m. the Burmese princes of Toungoo, in the north-east of Pegu, in length; and construction was contemplated of a railway from began to rise to power, and established a dynasty which at one Thazi towards Taung-gyi, the headquarters of the southern Shan time held possession of Pegu,
See also:Ava and Arakan . They made States .
The total length of lines open in 1904-1905 was 1340 m., but railway communication in Burma is still very incomplete . Five i their capital at Pegu, and to this dynasty belong the gorgeous of the'sha
See also:tree . Cutch-boiling forms the chief means of livelihood of a large number of the poorer lasses in the Prome and Thayet- myo districts of Lower Burma, and a subsidiary means of subsistence elsewhere . Cheroot making and smoking is universal among both sexes . The chief arts of Burma are wood-
See also:carving and silver work . The floral wood-carving is remarkable for its freedom and spontaneity . The carving is done in teak wood when it is meant for
See also:fixtures, but teak has a coarse
See also:grain, and otherwise yamane
See also:dogwood, said to be a species of gmelina, is preferred . The tools employed are
See also:gouge and mallet . The design is traced on the wood with
See also:charcoal, gouged out in the rough, and finished with
See also:fine tools, using the mallet for every stroke . The great bulk of the silver work is in the form of
See also:bowls of different sizes, in shape something like the lower half of a
See also:barrel, only more
See also:convex, of betel boxes, cups and small boxes for lime . Both in the wood-carving and silver work the Burmese character displays itself, giving boldness, breadth and freedom of design, but a general want of careful finish . Unfortunately the national art is losing its distinctive type through contact with western civilization .
Commerce.—The chief articles of export from Burma are rice and timber . In 1895 the quantity of rice exported in the
See also:foreign and coastal
See also:trade amounted to 1,419,173 tons valued at Rs.9,77,66,132, and in 1905 the figures were 2,187,764 tons, value Rs.15,67,28,288 . England takes by far the greatest share of Burma's rice, though large quantities are also consumed in Germany, while France, Italy, Belgium and
See also:Holland also consume a considerable amount . The regular course of trade is
See also:apt to be deflected by famines in India or
See also:Japan . In 1900 over one million tons of rice were shipped to India during the
See also:famine there . The rice-mills, almost all situated at the various seaports, secure the harvest from the cultivator through middlemen . The value of teak exported in 1895 was Rs.I,34,64,303, and in 1905, Rs.I,31;03,401 . Subordinate products for exports include cutch dye, caoutchouc or india-rubber, cotton, petroleum and jade . By far the largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while subordinate imports include hardware,
See also:gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and liquors . The following table shows the progressive value of the trade of Burma since 1871-1872: descriptions of some of the travellers of the 16th century . Their wars exhausted the country, and before the end of the century it was in the greatest decay . A new dynasty arose in Ava, which subdued Pegu, and maintained their supremacy through-out the 17th and during the first forty years of the 18th century .
The Peguans or Talaings then revolted, and having taken the capital Ava, and made the king prisoner, reduced the whole country to submission .
See also:Alompra, left by the conqueror in charge of the village of Mbtshobo, planned the deliverance of his country . He attacked the Peguans at first with small detachments; but when his forces increased, he suddenly advanced, and took possession of the capital in the autumn of 1753 . In 1754 the Peguans sent an armament of war-boats against Ava, but they were totally defeated by Alompra; while in the districts of Prome, Donubyu, &c., the Burmans revolted, and expelled all the Pegu garrisons in their towns . In 1754 Prome was besieged by the king of Pegu, who was again defeated by Alompra, and the war was transferred from the upper provinces to the mouths of the navigable rivers, and the numerous creeks and canals which intersect the lower country . In 1755 the yuva
See also:raja, the king of Pegu's
See also:brother, was equally unsuccessful, after which the Peguans were driven from Bassein and the adjacent country, and were forced to withdraw to the fortress of Syriam, distant 12 M. from Rangoon . Here they enjoyed a brief repose, Alompra being called away to quell an insurrection of his own subjects, and to repel an invasion of the Siamese; but returning victorious, he laid
See also:siege to the fortress of Syriam and took it by surprise . In these wars the French sided with the Peguans, the English with the Burmans .
See also:Dupleix, the governor of
See also:Pondicherry, had sent two ships to the aid of the former; but the
See also:master of the first was decoyed up the river by Alompra, where he was massacred along with his whole
See also:crew . The other escaped to Pondicherry . Alompra was now master of all the navigable rivers; and the Peguans, shut out from foreign aid, were finally subdued . In 1757 the conqueror laid siege to the city of Pegu, which capitulated, on
See also:condition that their own king should govern the country, but that he should do homage for his kingdom, and should also surrender his daughter to the victorious monarch .
Alompra never contemplated the fulfilment of the condition; and having obtained possession of the town, abandoned it to the fury of his soldiers . In the following year the Peguans vainly endeavoured to throw off the yoke . Alompra afterwards reduced the town and district of Tavoy, and finally undertook the
See also:conquest of the Siamese . His army advanced to Mergui and Tenasserim, both of which towns were taken; and he was besieging the capital of Siam when he was taken
See also:ill . He immediately ordered his army to retreat, in hopes of reaching his capital alive; but he expired on the way, in 1760, in the fiftieth year of his age, after he had reigned eight years . In the previous year he had massacred the English of the
See also:establishment of Negrais, whom he suspected of assisting the Peguans . He was succeeded by his eldest son Noungdaugyi, whose reign was disturbed by the
See also:rebellion of his brother Sin-byu-shin, and after-wards by one of his
See also:father's generals . He died in little more than three years, leaving one son in his
See also:infancy; and on his decease the
See also:throne was seized by his brother Sin-byu-shin . The new king was
See also:intent, like his predecessors, on the conquest of the adjacent states, and accordingly made war in 1765 on the Manipur kingdom, and also on the Siamese, with partial success . In the following year he defeated the Siamese, and, after a long blockade, obtained possession of their capital . But while the Burmans were extending their conquests in this quarter, they were invaded by a Chinese army of 50,000 men from the province of Yunnan . This army was hemmed in by the skill of the Burmans; and, being reduced by the want of provisions, it was afterwards attacked and totally destroyed, with the exception of 2500 men, who were sent in fetters to work in the Burmese capital at their several trades .
In the meantime the Siamese revolted, and while the Burman army was marching against them, the Peguan soldiers who had been incorporated in it
See also:rose against their companions, and commencing an indiscriminate
See also:massacre, pursued the Burman army to the
See also:gates of Rangoon,which they besieged, but were unable to capture . In 1 774 Sin-byu-shin was engaged in reducing the marauding tribes . He took the district and fort of Martaban from the revolted Peguans; and in the following year he sailed down the Irrawaddy with an army of 50,000 men, and, . arriving at Rangoon, put to
See also:death the aged monarch of Pegu, along with many of his nobles, who had shared with him in the offence of rebellion . He died in 1776, after a reign of twelve years, during which he had extended the Burmese dominions on every side . He was succeeded by his son, a youth of eighteen, called Singumin (Chenguza of Symes), who proved himself a bloodthirsty
See also:despot, and was put to death by his
See also:uncle, Bodawpaya or Mentaragyi, in 1781, who ascended the vacant throne . In 1783 the new king effected the conquest of Arakan . In the same year he removed his residence from Ava, which, with brief interruptions, had been the capital for four centuries, to the new city of Amarapura, " the City of the Immortals." The Siamese who had revolted in 1771 were never afterwards subdued by the Burmans; but the latter retained their dominion over the sea-coast as far as Mergui . In the year 1785 they attacked the
See also:island of Junkseylon with a
See also:fleet of boats and an army, but were ultimately driven back with loss; and a second attempt by the Burman monarch, who in 1786 invaded Siam with an army of 30,000 men, was attended with no better success . In 1793 peace was concluded between these two powers, the Siamese yielding to the Burmans the entire possession of the coast of Tenasserim on the Indian Ocean, and the two important seaports of Mergui and Tavoy . In 1795 the Burmese were involved in a dispute with the British in India, in consequence of their troops, to the amount of 5000 men, entering the district of Chittagong in pursuit of three robbers who had fled from justice across the frontier . Explanations being made and terms of accommodation offered by General
See also:Erskine, the commanding officer, the Burmese
See also:commander retired from the British territories, when the fugitives were restored, and all differences for the time amicably arranged . But it was evident that the gradual extension of the British and Burmese territories would in time bring the two powers into close contact along a more extended line of frontier, and in all probability lead to a war between them .
It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near
See also:Sylhet, on the north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of
See also:Cachar, under the
See also:protection of the British government . The Burmese leaders, arrested in their career of conquest, were impatient to measure their strength with their new neighbours . It appears from the evidence of Europeans who resided in Ava, that they were entirely unacquainted with the discipline and resources of the Europeans . They imagined that, like other nations, they would fall before their
See also:superior tactics and valour; and their cupidity was inflamed by the prospect of marching to Calcutta and plundering the country . At length their chiefs ventured on the open violation of the British territories . They attacked a party of sepoys within the frontier, and seized and carried off British subjects, while at all points their troops, moving in large bodies, assumed the most menacing positions . In the south encroachments were made upon the British frontier of Chittagong . The island of Shahpura, at the mouth of the Naaf river, had been occupied by a small guard of British troops . These were attacked on the 23rd of
See also:September 1823 by the Burmese, and driven from their
See also:post with the loss of several lives; and to the repeated demands of the British for redress no answer was returned . Other outrages ensued; and at length,-on March 5th, 1824, war was declared by the British government . The military operations, which will be found described under BURMESE WARS, ended in the treaty of Yandaboo on the 24th of
See also:February 1826, which conceded the British terms and enabled their army to be withdrawn . For some years the relations of peace continued undisturbed .
Probably the feeling of amity on the part of the Burmese government was not very strong; but so long as the
See also:prince by whom the treaty was concluded continued in power, no attempt was made to depart from its main stipulations . That monarch, Ba-ggi-daw, however, was obliged in 1837 to yield the throne to a usurper who appeared in the person of his brother, Tharrawaddi (Tharawadi) . The latter, at an early period, manifested not only that hatred of British connexion which was almost universal at the Burmese court, but also the extremest contempt . For several years it had become apparent that the period was approaching when war between the British and the Burmese governments would again become inevitable . The British resident, Major
See also:Burney, who had been appointed in 183o, finding his presence at Ava agreeable neither to the king nor to himself, removed in 1837 to Rangoon, and shortly afterwards retired from the country . Ultimately it became necessary to forego even the pretence of maintaining relations of friendship, and the British functionary at that time, Captain Macleod, was withdrawn in 184o altogether from a country where his continuance would have been but a mockery . The state of sullen dislike which followed was after a while succeeded by more active evidences of hostility . Acts of violence were committed on British ships and British
See also:seamen . Remonstrance was consequently made by the British government, and its envoys were supported by a small naval force . The officers on whom devolved the duty of representing the wrongs of their fellow-countrymen and demanding redress, proceeded to Rangoon, the governor of which place had been a chief actor in the outrages complained of; but so far were they from meeting with any signs of regret, that they were treated with indignity and contempt, and compelled to retire without accomplishing anything beyond blockading the ports . A series of negotiations followed; nothing was demanded of the Burmese beyond a very moderate compensation for the injuries inflicted on the masters of two British vessels, an
See also:apology for the insults offered by the governor of Rangoon to the representatives of the British government, and the re-establishment of at least the appearance of friendly relations by the reception of a British
See also:agent by the Burmese government . But the obduracy of King Pagan, who had succeeded his father in 1846, led to the refusal alike of
See also:atonement for past wrongs, of any expression of regret for the display of gratuitous insolence, and of any indication of a
See also:desire to maintain friendship for the future .
Another Burmese war was the result, the first shot being fired in January 1852 . As in the former, though success was varying, the British finally triumphed, and the chief towns in the lower part of the Burmese kingdom fell to them in succession . The city of Pegu, the capital of that portion which, after having been captured, had again passed into the hands of the enemy, was recaptured and retained, and the whole province of Pegu was, byproclamation of the governor-general,
See also:Lord Dalhousie, declared to be annexed to the British dominions on the 2oth of December 1852 . No treaty was obtained or insisted upon,—the British government being content with the tacit acquiescence of the king of Burma without such documents; but its
See also:resolution was declared, that any active demonstration of hostility by him would be followed by retribution . About the same time a revolution broke out which resulted in King Pagan's dethronement . His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his actions recall the worst passages of the history of the later Roman emperors . The Mindon prince, who had become apprehensive for his own safety, made him prisoner in February 1853, and was himself crowned king of Burma towards the end of the year . The new monarch, known as King Mind6n, showed himself sufficiently arrogant in his dealings with the European powers, but was wise enough to keep free from any approach towards hostility . The loss of Pegu was long a matter of bitter regret, and he absolutely refused to acknowledge it by a formal treaty . In the beginning of 1855 he sent a
See also:mission of compliment to Lord Dalhousie, the governor-general; and in the summer of the same year Major (afterwards
See also:Sir Arthur) Phayre, de facto governor of the new province of Pegu, was appointed
See also:envoy to the Burmese court . He was accompanied by Captain (afterwards Sir
See also:Henry) Yule as secretary, and Mr Oldham as geologist, and his mission added largely toour knowledge of the state of the country; but in its main object of obtaining a treaty it was unsuccessful . It was not till 1862 that the king at length yielded, and his relations with Britain were placed on a definite
See also:diplomatic basis .
In that year the province of British Burma, the present Lower Burma, was formed,with Sir Arthur Phayre as chief commissioner . In 1867 a treaty was concluded at Mandalay providing for the free intercourse of trade and the establishment of regular diplomatic relations . King Mind8n died in 1878, and was succeeded by his son King Thibaw . Early in 1879 he excited much horror by executing a number of the members of the Burmese royal family, and relations became much strained . The British resident was withdrawn in
See also:October 1879 . The government of the country rapidly became
See also:bad . Control over many of the outlying districts was lost, and the elements of disorder on the British frontier were a
See also:standing menace to the peace of the country . The Burmese court, in contravention of the
See also:express terms of the treaty of 1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay, representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if possible, close alliances with sundry European powers . Matters were brought to a crisis towards the close of 1885, when the Burmese government imposed a fine of £230,000 on the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation, and refused to comply with a
See also:suggestion of the Indian government that the cause of complaint should be investigated by an impartial arbitrator . An
See also:ultimatum was therefore despatched on the 22nd of October 1885 . On the 9th of November a reply was received in Rangoon amounting to an unconditional refusal . The king on the 7th of November issued a proclamation calling upon his subjects to drive the British into the sea .
On the 14th of November 1885 the British field force crossed the frontier, and advanced to Mandalay without incurring any serious resistance (see BURMESE WARS) . It reached Ava on the 26th of November, and an envoy from the king signified his submission . On the 28th of November the British occupied Mandalay, and next
See also:day King Thibaw was sent down the river to Rangoon, whence he was afterwards transferred to
See also:Ratnagiri on the Bombay coast . Upper Burma was formally annexed on the 1st of January 1886, and the work of restoring the country to
See also:order and introducing settled government commenced . This was a more serious task than the overthrow of the Burmese government, and occupied four years . This was in part due to the character of the country, which was characterized as one vast military obstacle, and in part to the disorganization which had been steadily growing during the six years of King Thibaw's reign . By the close of 1889 all the larger bands of marauders were broken up, and since 1890 the country has enjoyed greater freedom from violent
See also:crime than the province formerly known as British Burma . By the Upper Burma Village Regulations and the Lower Burma Village Act, the villagers themselves were made responsible for maintaining order in every village, and the system has worked with the greatest success . During the decade 1891–1901 the population increased by 19.8% and cultivation by 53% . With good harvests and good markets the standard of living in Burma has much improved . Large areas of cultivable waste have been brought under cultivation, and the general result has been a contented people . The boundary with Siam was demarcated in 1893, and that with China was completed in 1900 .
8+6 Picturesque Burma (
See also:London, 1897) ; Gen . R .
See also:Macmahon, Far
See also:Cathay and Farther India (London, 1892) ; Rev . F .
See also:Mason, D.D., B srma (Rangoon, 186o) ; E . H .
See also:Parker, Burma (Rangoon, 1892) ; Sir Arthur Phayre, History of Burma (London, 1883) ; G . C .
See also:Rigby, History of the Operations in Northern Arakan and the Yawdwin Chin
See also:Wills (Rangoon, 1897), Sir J .
See also:Scott, Burma, As it is, As it was, and As it will be (London, 1886); Shway Yoe, The Burman, His Life and Notions (2nd ed., London, 1896); D . M .
See also:Smeaton, The Karens of Burma (London, 1887) ; Sir Henry Yule, A Mission to Ava (London, 1858) ; J .
Nisbet, Burma under British Rule and Before (London, 1901); V . D . Scott O'Connor, The Silken East (London, 1904) ; Talbot
See also:Kelly, Burma (London, 1905) ; an exhaustive account of the administration is contained in Dr Alleyne
See also:Ireland's The Province of Burma,
See also:Report prepared on behalf of the university of Chicago (Boston, U.S.A., 2 vols., 1907) . (J . G . Sc.) '
See also:BURMANN, PIETER (1668–1741), Dutch classical
See also:scholar, known as " the Elder," to distinguish him from his
See also:nephew, was
See also:born at Utrecht . At the age of thirteen he entered the university where he studied under Graevius and Gronovius . He devoted himself particularly to the study of the classical
See also:languages, and became unusually proficient in Latin composition . As he was intended for the legal profession, he spent some years in attendance on the law classes . For about a year he studied at
See also:Leiden, paying special
See also:attention to philosophy and Greek . On his return to Utrecht he took the degree of
See also:doctor of laws (March 1688), and after travelling through
See also:Switzerland and part of Germany, settled down to the practice of law, without, however, abandoning his classical studies . In December 1691 he was appointed
See also:receiver of the
See also:tithes which were originally paid to the
See also:bishop of Utrecht, and five years later was nominated to the professorship of eloquence and history .
See also:chair was soon added that of Greek and politics . In 1714 he paid a
See also:short visit to
See also:Paris and ransacked the
See also:libraries . In the following year he was appointed successor to the celebrated
See also:Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language and eloquence at Leiden . He was subsequently appointed
See also:professor of history for the
See also:United Provinces and chief librarian . His numerous editorial and critical works spread his fame as a scholar throughout Europe, and engaged him in many of the stormy disputes which were then so common among men of letters . Burmann was rather a compiler than a critic; his commentaries show immense learning and accuracy, but are wanting in taste and
See also:judgment . He died on the 31st of March 1741 . Burmann edited the following classical authors:—Phaedrus (1698) ; Horace (1699) ;
See also:Flaccus (1702) ;
See also:Petronius Arbiter (1709); Velleius Paterculus (1719); Quintilian (1720);
See also:Justin (1722); Ovid (1727); Poetae
See also:Latini minores (1731); Suetonius (1736);
See also:Lucan (1740) . He also published an edition of
See also:Buchanan's works, continued Graevius's great work,
See also:Thesaurus Antiquitatum et Historiarum Italiae, and wrote a
See also:treatise De Vectigalibus populi Romani (1694) and a short
See also:manual of Roman antiquities, Antiquitatum Romanarum Brevis Descriptio (1711) . His Sylloge a slolarum a viris illustribus scriptarum (1725) is of importance for the history of learned men . The
See also:list of his works occupies five pages in Saxe's Onomasticon . His poems and orations were published after his death .
There is an account of his life in the
See also:Magazine for April (1742) by Dr
See also:Johnson .
PIETER BURMANN (1714-1778)
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