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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 750 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BUTTER AND BUTTER-MAKING As with cheese, so with butter, large quantities of the latter have been inferior not because the cream was poor in quality, but because the wrong kinds of bacteria had taken possession of the atmosphere in hundreds of dairies. The greatest if not the latest novelty in dairying in the last decade of the 19th century was the isolation of lactic acid bacilli, their cultivation in a suitable medium, and their employment in cream preparatory to churning. Used thus in butter-making, an excellent product results, provided cleanliness be scrupulously maintained. The culture repeats itself in the buttermilk, which in turn may be used again with marked success. Much fine butter, indeed, was made long before the bearing of upon the practice of dairying was recognized—made by using acid butter-milk from a previous churning. In Denmark, which is, for its size, the greatest butter-producing country in the world, most of the butter is made with the aid of " starters," or artificial cultures which are employed in ripening the cream. Though the butter made by such cultures shows little if any superiority over a good sample made from cream ripened in the ordinary way—that is, by keeping the cream at a fairly high temperature until it is ready for churning, when it must be cooled—it is claimed that the use of these cultures enables the butter-makers of Denmark, to secure a muchgreater uniformity in the quality of their produce than would be possible if they depended upon the ripening of the cream through the influence of bacteria taken up in the usual way from the air. Butter-making is an altogether simpler process than cheese-making, but success demands strict attention to sound principles, the observance of thorough cleanliness in every stage of the work, and the intelligent use of the thermometer. The following rules for butter-making, issued by the Royal Agricultural' Society sufficiently indicate the nature of the operation: Prepare churn, butter-worker, wooden-hands and sieve as follows:—(a)Rinse with cold water. (2) Scald with boiling water. (3) Rub thoroughly with salt. (4) Rinse with cold water. Always use a correct thermometer. The cream, when in the churn, to be at a temperature of 56° to 58° F. in summer and 6o° to 62 ° F. in winter. The churn should never be more than half full. Churn at number of revolutions suggested by maker of churn. If none are given, churn at 40 to 45 revolutions per minute. Always churn slowly at first. Ventilate the churn freely and frequently during churning, until no air rushes out when the vent is opened. Stop churning immediately the butter comes. This can be ascertained by the sound; if in doubt, look. The butter should now be like grains of mustard seed. Pour in a small quantity of cold water (I pint of water to 2 quarts of cream) to harden the grains, and give a few more turns to the churn gently. Draw off the buttermilk, giving plenty of time for draining. Use a straining-cloth placed over the hair-sieve, so as to prevent any loss, and wash the butter in the churn with plenty, of cold water: then draw off the water, and repeat the process until the water comes off quite clear. Ta brine butter, make a strong brine, 2. to 3 lb of salt to I gallon of water. Place straining-cloth over mouth of churn, pour in brine, put lid on churn, turn sharply half a dozen times, and leave for to to 15 minutes. Then lift the butter out of the churn into sieve, turn butter out on worker, leave it a few minutes to drain, and work gently till all superfluous moisture is pressed out. To drysalt butter, place butter on worker, let it drain Io to 15 minutes, then work gently till all the butter comes together., Place it on the scales and weigh ; then weight salt, for slight salting, ,f oz.; medium, a oz.; heavy salting, 1 oz. to the lb of butter. Roll butter out. on worker and carefully sprinkle salt over the surface, a little at a time; roll up and repeat till all the salt is used. Never touch the butter with your hands. Well-made butter is firm and not greasy. It possesses ' a characteristic texture or " grain, in virtue of which it cuts clean with a knife and breaks with a granular fracture, like that of cast-iron. Theoretically, butter should consist of little else than fat, but in practice this degree of perfection is never attained. Usually the fat ranges from 83 to 88 %, whilst water is present to the extent of from 10 to 15 %.l There will also be from 0.2 to o.8 % of milk-sugar, and from o•5 to 0.8 % of casein. It is the casein which is the objectionable ingredient, and the presence of which is usually the cause of rancidity. In badly-washed or badly-worked butter, from which the buttermilk has not been properly removed, the proportion of casein or curd left in the product may be considerable, and such butter has only inferior keeping qualities. At the same time, the mistake may be made of overworking or of overwashing the butter, thereby depriving it of the delicacy of flavour which is one of its chief attractions as an article of consumption if eaten fresh. The object of washing with brine is,that, the small quantity of salt thus introduced shall act as a preservative and develop the flavour. Streaky butter may be due either to curd left in by imperfect washing, or to an uneven distribution of the salt.
End of Article: BUTTER AND
BUTTER (Lat. butyrum, Gr. 0obrvpov, apparently conn...

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