Online Encyclopedia

BYEZHETSK

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V04, Page 896 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BYEZHETSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Tver, and 70 M. N.N.E. of the city of that name, on the right bank of the Mologa, in 57° 46' N. lat. and 36° 43' E. long. Pop. (186o) 5423; (1897) 9090. It is mentioned in the chronicles of 1137. On the fall of Novgorod, to which it had belonged, it was incorporated (1479) with the grand-duchy of Moscow. The town is famous for its scythes andshearing hooks,but makes also axes,nails and other hardware, and trades in grain, linen, hemp and flax. BY-LAW, or BYE-LAW (by- being used in the sense of subordinate or secondary, cf. by-path), a regulation made by councils, boards, corporations and companies, usually under statutory power, for the preservation of order and good government within some place or jurisdiction. When made under authority of a statute, by-laws must generally, before they come into operation, be submitted to some confirming authority for sanction and approval; when approved, they are as binding as enacted laws. By-laws must be reasonable in themselves; they must not be retrospective nor contrary to the general law of the land. By various statutes powers are given to borough, county and district councils, to make by-laws for various purposes; corporate bodies, also, are empowered by their charters to make by-laws which are binding on their members, Such by-laws must be in harmony with the objects of the society and must not infringe or limit the powers and duties of its officers.
End of Article: BYEZHETSK
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