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CALIXTUS I

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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 54 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CALIXTUS I  ., pope from 217 to 222, was little known before the
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discovery of the
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book of the Philosophumena . From this
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work, which is in
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part a pamphlet directed against him, we learn that Calixtus was originally a slave and engaged in banking . Falling on evil times, he was brought into collision with the Jews, who denounced him as a Christian and procured his exile to Sardinia . On his return from exile he was pensioned by Pope Victor, and, later, was associated by Pope Zephyrinus in the government of the
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Roman church . On the
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death of Zephyrinus (217) he was elected in his place and occupied the papal chair for five years . His theological adversary Hippolytus, the author of the Philosophumena, accused him of having favoured the modalist or Patripassian doctrines both before and after his election . Calixtus, however, condemned Sabellius, the most prominent champion of that
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system . Hippolytus accused him also of certain relaxations of discipline . It appears that Calixtus reduced the penitential severities applied until his time to those guilty of adultery and other analogous sins . Under Calixtus and his two immediate successors, Hippolytus was the leader of a schismatic
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group, organized by way of protestagainst the election of Calixtus . Calixtus died in 222, in circumstances obscured by legends . In the time of
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Constantine the Roman church reckoned him officially among the martyr popes .

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