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CANAL

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 171 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CANAL DOVER-CANALE 171 adhesion being thus obtained by the magnetic attraction exercised on the iron chain; and it was also adopted about the same time in combination with electrical haulage on a small portion of the Bourgogne canal, electricity being employed to drive the motor that worked the pulley. Small locomotives running on rails along the towpath were tried on the Shropshire Union canal, where they were abandoned on account of practical difficulties in working, and also on certain canals in France and Germany, where, however, the financial results were not satisfactory. On portions of the Teltow canal, joining the Havel and the Spree, electrical tractors run on rails along both banks, taking their power from an overhead wire; they attain a speed of 21 M. an hour when hauling two 600-ton barges. The electrical supply is also utilized for working the lock gates and for various other purposes along the route of the canal. In the Mont-de-Rilly tunnel, at the summit level of the Aisne-Marne canal, a systeni of cable-traction was established in 1894, the boats being taken through by being attached to an endless travelling wire rope supported by pulleys en the towpath. When railways were being carried out in England some canal companies were alarmed for their future, and sold their canals to the railway companies, who in 1906 owned 1138 m. of canals out of a total length in the United Kingdom of 3901 M. As some e f these canals are links in the chain of internal water communication complaints have frequently arisen on the question of through traffic and tolls. The great improvements carried out in America and on the continent of Europe by state 'aid enable manufacturers to get the raw material they use and goods they export to and from their ports at much cheaper rates than those charged on British canals. The association of chambers of commerce and other bodies having taken up the matter, a royal commission was appointed in 1906 to report on the canals and water-ways of the kingdom, with a view to considering how they could be more profitably used for national purposes. Its Report was published in December 1909. Britain), 1906-9. (E. L. W.)
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