CANTERBURY , acity and
See also:county of a city, the metropolis of an archdiocese of the
See also:Church of England, and a municipal, county and
See also:borough of Kent, England, 62 m . E.S.E. of
See also:London by the South-Eastern & Chatham railway . Pop . (1901) 24,889 . It lies on the
See also:Stour, which here debouches from a beautiful narrow valley of the
See also:Downs, the low but abrupt elevations of which command
See also:fine views of the city from the west and south, while the river presently enters upon the
See also:belt of
See also:land which separates the elevated Isle of
See also:Thanet from the
See also:rest of Kent . This belt represents the existence, in early historic times, of a
See also:sea-strait, and Fordwich, little more than 2 M. north-east of Canterbury, was once accessible for
See also:ship-ping . The city surrounds the precincts of the
See also:cathedral . The Cathedral.—It was to Canterbury, as the capital of IEthelberht, the
See also:fourth Saxon
See also:king of Kent, that in 597 Augustine and his
See also:fellow-missionaries came from Rome, and their settlement by £Ethelberht in his capital became the origin of its position, held ever since, as the metropolis of the Church of England . IEthelberht, whose
See also:queen, Bertha, was already a Christian, gave the missionaries a church whose mythical founder was King
See also:Lucius . Augustine was a
See also:Benedictine and established the monastery of that
See also:order attached to the cathedral; this foundation was set upon a
See also:firm basis after the Norman
See also:Conquest by Archbishop
See also:Lanfranc, who placed its
See also:charge (as distinct from that of the
See also:diocese) in the hands of a
See also:prior . Preparatory to the description of the cathedral, the
See also:principal epochs in the
See also:history of its erection may be noted . The Romano-
See also:British church occupied by St Augustine, of
See also:basilica History
See also:form, remained long in use, though it was largely of the
See also:building. rebuilt by Archbishop
See also:Odo, c .
950; after further vicissitudes it was destroyed by
See also:fire in 1067 . Arch-
See also:bishop Lanfranc, taking up his
See also:office in 1070, undertook the building of an entirely new church, but under Anselm (c . 1100) Prior Ernulf rebuilt the eastern
See also:part, and his successor
See also:Conrad carried on the
See also:work . A fire destroyed much of this part of the building in 1174, and from that
See also:year the architect,
See also:William of
See also:Sens, took up the work of rebuilding until 1178, when, on his suffering serious injury by falling from a
See also:scaffold, another William, commonly distinguished as the Englishman, carried on the work and completed it in 1184 . In 1376 Archbishop Sudbury entered upon the construction of a new
See also:nave, and Prior Chillenden continued this under Archbishop Courtenay . The ibuilding of the central tower was undertaken c . 1495 by Prior Goldstone, with the counsel of Selling, his predecessor, and Archbishop
See also:Morton . This Perpendicular tower is the most notable feature of the exterior . It rises in two storeys to a height of 235 ft. from the ground, and is known variously as
See also:Bell Harry tower Exterior. from the great bell it contains, or as the
See also:steeple from the gilded figure of an angel which formerly adorned the
See also:summit . The Perpendicular nave is flanked at the west front by towers, whose massive buttresses, rising in tiers, serve to enhance by contrast the beautiful effect of the unbroken straight lines of Bell Harry tower . The south-western of these towers is an
See also:original Perpendicular structure by Prior Goldstone, while the north-western was copied from it in 1834-1840, replacing a Norman tower which had carried a
See also:spire until 1705 and had become unsafe . The north-west and south-west transepts are included in Chillenden's Perpendicular reconstruction; but east of these earlier work is met with .
See also:transept exhibits Norman work; the projecting
See also:chapel east of this is known as Anselm's tower . The cathedral terminates eastward in a graceful apsidal form, with the final addition of the circular eastern chapel built by William the Englishman, and known as the
See also:Corona or
See also:Crown . St Andrew's tower or chapel on the north side, corresponding to Anselm's on the south, is the work of Ernulf . From this point westward the various monastic buildings adjoin the cathedral on the north side, so that the south side is that from which the details of the exterior must be examined . When the nave of the cathedral is entered, the
See also:complete separation of the interior into two
See also:main parts, not only owing to the distinction between the two main periods of interior. building; but by an actual structural arrangement, is realized as an unusual and, as it happens, a most impressive feature . In most
See also:English cathedrals the
See also:choir is separated from the nave by a
See also:screen; at Canterbury not only is this the case, but the separation is further marked by a broad
See also:flight of steps leading up to the screen, the choir
See also:floor (but not its roof) being much higher than that of the nave . Chillenden, in rebuilding the nave, retained only the
See also:lower parts of some of the early Norman walls of Lanfranc and the piers of the central tower
See also:arches . These piers were encased or altered on Perpendicular lines . In the choir, the
See also:late 12th-century work of the two
See also:Williams, the notable features are its great length, the fine ornamentation and the use of arches both
See also:round and pointed, a remarkable
See also:illustration of the transition between the Norman and Early English styles; the prolific use of dark marble in the shafts and
See also:mouldings strongly contrasting with the
See also:stone which is the material principally used; and, finally, the graceful incurve of the main arcades and walls at the eastern end of the choir where it joins the chapel of the Trinity, an arrangement necessitated by the preservation of the earlier flanking chapels or towers of St Anselm and St Andrew . From the
See also:altar eastward the floor of the church is raised again above that of the choir . The choir screen was built by Prior de Estria, c . 1300 .
See also:organ is not seen, being hidden in the
See also:triforium and played from the choir . There are several tombs of archbishops in the choir . The south-east transept serves as the chapel of the King's school and exhibits the work of William of Sens in alteration of that of Ernulf . Anselm's chapel or tower, already mentioned, may be noticed again as containing a Decorated window (1336) . This
See also:style is not
See also:common in the cathedral . Behind the altar is Trinity Chapel, in the centre of which stood the celebrated
See also:shrine of St
See also:Thomas of Canterbury . The priory owed its chief fame to the
See also:murder of Archbishop Becket (1170) in the church, his
See also:canonization as St Thomas of Canterbury, and the resort of the Christian
See also:world on pilgrimage to his shrine . Miracles were almost immediately said to be worked at his
See also:grave in the crypt and at the well in which his garments had been washed; and from the
See also:time when
See also:Henry II. did his penance for the murder in the church, and the
See also:battle of
See also:Alnwick was gained over the Scots a few days afterwards—it was supposed as a result— the Becket's shrine .
See also:Pilgrim-ages . fame of the
See also:martyr's power and the popularity of his worship became established in England . On the rebuilding of the cathedral after the fire of 1174, a magnificent shrine was erected for him in Trinity Chapel, which was built for the purpose, and became thronged for three centuries by pilgrims and worshippers of all classes, from
See also:kings and emperors downward . Hence-forward the interests of the city became bound up in those of the cathedral, and were shown in the large number of hostels for the accommodation of pilgrims, and of shops containing wares especially suited to their tastes .
A pilgrimage to Canter-bury became not only a pious exercise, but a favourite summer excursion; and the poet
See also:Chaucer, writing in the 14th century, gives an admirable picture of such pilgrimages, with the
See also:manners and behaviour of a party of pilgrims, leisurely enjoying the
See also:journey and telling stories on the road . The English language even preserved two words originating in these customs—a "canterbury," or a "canterbury
See also:tale," a phrase used for a fiction, and a " canter," which is a
See also:short form for a " canterbury -gallop," an allusion to the easy
See also:pace at which these pilgrimages were performed . The shrine with its vast collected
See also:wealth was destroyed, and every reminiscence connected with it as far as possible effaced, by King Henry VIII.'s commissioners in 1538 . But some of the beautiful old windows of stained
See also:glass, illustrating the miracles wrought in connexion with the
See also:saint, are pre-served . The north-west transept was the actual scene of Becket's murder; the spot where he fell is shown on the floor, but this part of the building is of later date than the tragedy . Close to the site of the shrine is the fine
See also:tomb of
See also:Edward the Black
See also:Prince, with a remarkable portrait effigy, and above it his
See also:shield and other equipment . There is also in this chapel the tomb of King Henry IV . The Corona, at the extreme
See also:cast of the church, contains the so-called St Augustine's
See also:chair in which the archbishops are enthroned . It is of marble, but its name is not deserved, as it
See also:dates probably from c . 1200 . The western part of the crypt, beneath the choir, is the work of Ernulf, and perhaps incorporates some of Lanfranc's work . The chapel of St
See also:John or St
See also:Gabriel, beneath Anselm's tower, is still used for service, in which the French language is used; it was devoted to this purpose in 1561, on behalf of French
See also:Protestant refugees, who were also permitted to carry on their
See also:trade as weavers in the crypt .
The eastern and loftier part of the crypt, with its apsidal termination, is the work of William the Englishman . Here for some time
See also:lay the
See also:body of Becket, and here the celebrated penance of Henry II. was performed . The chief entrance to the precincts is through an ornate
See also:gate-way at the south-west, called
See also:Christchurch gateway, and built by Prior Goldstone in 1517 . Among the remains of Monastic the monastic buildings there may be mentioned the builddings ~' Norman ruins of the infirmary, the fine two-storeyed
See also:treasury and the lavatory tower, Norman in the lower part and Perpendicular in the upper . The cloisters are of various dates, containing a little
See also:rich Norman work, but were very largely rebuilt by Prior Chillenden . The upper part of the
See also:house is also his work, but the lower is by Prior de Estria . The library is
See also:modern . The site of the New
See also:Hall of the monastery is covered by modern buildings of King's schocl, but the Norman entry-
See also:stair is preserved---a magnificent example of the style, with highly ornate arcading . The principal dimensions of the cathedral are: length (out-side) 522 ft., nave 178 ft., choir 18o ft . The nave is 71 ft. in breadth and 8o ft. in height . The archbishop of Canterbury is primate of all England; the ecclesiastical province of Canterbury covers England
See also:Simon Sudbury, 1375 to 1381 . 6o .
William Courtenay, 1381 to 1396 . 61 . ThomasArundel, 1396 to 1414 . 62 . Henry
See also:Chicheley, 1414 to 1443 63 . John Stafford, 1443 to 1452 . 64 . John
See also:Kemp, 1452 to 1454 . 65 . Thomas Bourchier, 1454 to 1486 . 66 . John Morton, 1486 to 1500 .
67 . HenryDean (Dene), 1501 to 1503 . 68 . William
See also:Warham, 1503 to 1532 . 69 . Thomas
See also:Cranmer, 1533 to 1556 . Reginald
See also:Pole, 1556 to 1558 .
See also:Parker, 1559 to 1575 . 72 . Edmund
See also:Grindal, 1575 to 1583 . John
See also:Whitgift, 1583 to 1604 .
See also:Bancroft, 1604 to 1610 .
See also:Abbot, i610 to 1633 . William Laud, 1633 to 1645 . William
See also:Juxon, 166o to 1663 .
See also:Gilbert Sheldon, 1663 to 1677 . 79 . William
See also:Sancroft, 1678 to 1691 . 80 . John
See also:Tillotson, 1691 to 1694 . 81 . Thomas
See also:Tenison, 1694 to 1715 . 82 . William
See also:Wake, 1716 to 1737 .
83 . John
See also:Potter, 1737 to 1747 . 84 . Thomas Herring, 1747 to 1757 . 85 . Matthew Hutton, 1757 to 1758 . 86 . Thomas Seeker, 1758 to 1768 . 87 .
See also:Frederick Cornwallis, 1768 to 1783 . 88 . John
See also:Moore, 1783 to 1805 .
See also:Charles Manners-Sutton, 1805 to 1828 . 90 . William Howley, 1828 to 1848 . John
See also:Sumner, 1848 to 1862 . 92 . Charles Thomas
See also:Longley, 1862 to 1868 . Archibald
See also:Tait, 1868 to 1882 . Edward
See also:Benson, 1882 to 1896 . Frederick
See also:Temple, 1896 to 1903 .
See also:Randall Thomas
See also:Davidson . The archbishop has a seat at
See also:Lambeth Palace, London .
There are fragments in PalaceStreet of the old archbishop's palace which have been incorporated with a modern palace . Other Ecclesiastical
See also:Foundations . -- Canterbury naturally abounded in religious foundations . The most important, apart from the cathedral, was the Benedictine abbey of St Augustine . This was erected on a site granted by King AEthelberht outside his capital, in a
See also:tract called Longport . Augustine dedicated it to St
See also:Peter and St Paul, but Archbishop
See also:Dunstan added the sainted name of the founder to the dedication, and in common use it came to exclude those of the apostles . The site is now occupied by St Augustine's Missionary
See also:College, founded in 1844 when the
See also:property was acquired by A . J . B .
See also:Beresford Hope . Some
See also:ancient remnants are preserved, the principal being the entrance gateway (1300), with the cemetery gate, dated a century later, and the
See also:guest hall, now the refectory; but the scanty ruins of St Pancras' chapel are of high
See also:interest, and embody
See also:Roman material . The chapel is said to have received its dedication from St Augustine on account of the
See also:special association of St Pancras with
See also:children, and in connexion with the famous
See also:story of St
See also:Gregory, whose
See also:attention was first attracted to Britain Province and
See also:Wales south of
See also:Cheshire and
See also:Yorkshire; and the and diocese .
diocese covers a great part of Kent with a small part of
See also:Sussex . The following is a
See also:list of archbishops of Canterbury: I . Augustine, 597 to 605 . 6 . Deusdedit (Frithona), 655 2 .
See also:Lawrence (
See also:Laurentius), 605 to 664 . to 619 . 7 .
See also:Theodore, 668 to 690 . 3 .
See also:Mellitus, 619 to 624 . 8 .
Brethwald (Bcrhtuald), 693 4 .
See also:Justin . 624 to 627. to 731 . 5 . Honorius, 627 to 653 . 9 . Taetwine, 731 to 734 . 37 . 38-39 . 40 . 41 . 42 .
43 . 44 . 45 . 46 . 47 . 48 . 49 . 50 . 51 . 52 . 53 . 54 .
55 . 56 . 57 . 58 . io . Nothelm, 734 to 740 . II .
See also:Cuthbert, 740 to 758 . 12 . Breogwine, 759 to 762 . 13 . Jaenberht, 763 to 790 .
14 . ./Ethelhard, 790 to 803 . 15 . Wulfred, 803 to 829 . 16 . Fleogild, 829 to 830 . 17 . Ceolnoth, 83o to 870 . 18 . !
See also:Ethelred, 870 to 889 . 19 . Plegemund, 889 to 914 .
20. r'Ethelm, 914 to 923 . 21 . Wulfelm, 923 to 942 . 22 . Odo, 942 to 959 . 23. fElsine, 959 . 24 . Dunstan, 96o to 988 . 25 . IEthelgar, 988 to 989 . 26 . Sigeric, 990 to 994 .
See also:IElfric, 995 to 1005 . 28 .
See also:Alphege (iElfeah), 1005 to I012 . Lyfing, 1013 to 1020. fEthelnoth, 1020 to 1038 . Eadsige, 1038 to 1050 . Robert of Jumieges, 1051 to 1052 .
See also:Stigand, 1052 to 1070 . Lanfranc, 1070 to 1089 . Anselm, Io93 to 1109 .
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.