CAPPADOCIA , in
See also:ancient geography, an extensive inland
See also:district of
See also:Asia Minor . In the
See also:time of
See also:Herodotus the Capp. docians occupied the whole region from
See also:Taurus to the Euxine . That author tells us that the name of the Cappadocians (Katpatouka) was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks " Syrians," or "
See also:White Syrians " (Leucosyri) . Under the later
See also:kings of the Persian
See also:empire the were divided into two satrapies or governments, the one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Cappadocia Kara IIovrov, or simply
See also:Pontus (q.v.) . This division had already come about before the time of
See also:Xenophon . As after the fall of the Persian
See also:government the two provinces continued to be sbparate, the distinction was perpetuated, and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province (sometimes called
See also:Great Cappadocia), which alone will be considered in the
See also:present article . Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded S. by the chain of Mount Taurus, E. by the
See also:Euphrates, N. by Pontus, and W. vaguely by the great central
See also:salt "
See also:Desert " (Axylon) . But it is impossible to define its limits with accuracy .
See also:Strabo, the only ancient author who gives any circumstantial account of the
See also:country, greatly exaggerated its dimensions; it was in reality about 250 M. in length by less than 15o in breadth . With the exception of a narrow
See also:strip of the district called Melitene, on the east, which forms
See also:part of the valley of the Euphrates, the whole of this region is a high upland
See also:tract, attaining to more than 3000 ft., and constituting the most elevated portion of the great tableland of Asia Minor (q.v.) . The western parts of the province, where it adjoins
See also:Lycaonia, extending thence to the
See also:foot of Mount Taurus, are open treeless plains, affording pasture in
See also:modern as in ancient times to numerous flocks of
See also:sheep, but almost wholly desolate . But out of the midst of this great upland level rise detached groups or masses of mountains, mostly of volcanic origin, of which the loftiest are Mount Argaeus (still called by the
See also:Turks Erjish Dagh), (13,100 ft.), and
See also:Hassan Dagh to the south-west (8000 ft.) .
The eastern portion of the province is of a more varied and brokencharacter, being traversed by the
See also:system called by the Greeks
See also:Anti-Taurus . Between these mountains and the
See also:southern chain of Taurus, properly so called, lies the region called in ancient times Cataonia, occupying an upland plain surrounded by mountains . This district in the time of Strabo formed a portion of Cappadocia and was completely assimilated; but earlier writers and the Persian military system regarded the Cataonians as a distinct
See also:people . Cappadocia contained the
See also:sources of the Sarus and Pyramus
See also:rivers with their higher affluents, and also the
See also:middle course of the Halys (see ASIA MINOR), and the whole course of the tributary of Euphrates now called Tokhma Su . But as no one of these rivers was navigable or served to fertilize the lands along its torrential course, none has much importance in the
See also:history of the province . The
See also:kingdom of Cappadocia, which was still in existence in the time of Strabo, as a nominally
See also:independent state, was divided, according to that geographer, into ten districts . Of these Cataonia has been described; the adjoining district of Melitene, which did not originally
See also:form part of Cappadocia at all, but was annexed to it by Ariarathes I., was a fertile tract adjoining the Euphrates; its chief
See also:town retains the name of
See also:Malatia .
See also:Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country was situated, and in which
See also:rose the conspicuous Mount Argaeus . Tyanitis, the region of which Tyana was the capital, was a level tract in the extreme south, extending to the foot of Mount Taurus . Garsauritis appears to have comprised the western or south-western districts adjoining Lycaonia; its chief town was Archelais . Laviansene or Laviniane was the country south and south-east of Sivas, through which ran the road from Sebastea to Caesarea: Sargarausene
See also:lay south of the above, and included Uzun Yaila and the upper
See also:basin of the Tokhma Su; Saravene lay west of Laviansene and included the modern district of Ak Dagh; Chamanene lay west again of the above along the middle course of the Halys: Morimene was the
See also:north-western district extending along the edge of the central desert as far south as Melegob . The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Mazaca, the capital of the kingdom under its native monarchs (see CAESAREA-MAZACA); and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus, the site of which is marked bya great
See also:mound at a place called Kiz (or Ekuz)
See also:Hissar, about 12 M. south-west of
See also:Nigdeh .
Archelais, founded by
See also:Archelaus, the last
See also:king of the country, subsequently became a
See also:Roman colony, and a place of some importance . It is now Akserai . Several localities in the Cappadocian country were the sites of famous temples . Among these the most celebrated were those of Comana (q.v.) and Venasa in Morimene, where a male
See also:god was served by over 3000 hieroduli . The
See also:local sanctity of Venasa has been perpetuated by the Moslem veneration for Haji Bektash, the founder of the
See also:order of dervishes to which the Janissaries used in great part to belong . Cappadocia was remarkable for the number of its slaves, which constituted the
See also:wealth of its monarchs . Large numbers were sent to Rome but did not enjoy a
See also:good reputation . The Cappadocian peasants are still in the
See also:habit of taking service in the west of the peninsula and only returning to their homes after long absences; their labour is now much valued by employers, as they are a strong sober folk . The province was celebrated for its horses, as well as for its vast flocks of sheep; but from its
See also:elevation above the
See also:sea, and the coldness of its
See also:climate, it could never have been
See also:rich and fertile . History.—Nothing is known of- the history of Cappadocia before it became subject to the Persian empire, except that the country was the home of a great " Hittite " power centred at Boghaz-Keui (see
See also:PTERIA), which has
See also:left monuments at many places, e.g . Nevsheher, Fraktin, Gorun, Malatia, various points about Albistan and Derendeh, Bulgur Maden, Andaval and Tyana . Possibly the princes of the last named city were independent .
With the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by
See also:Croesus, Cappadocia was left in the power of a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile
See also:condition, which later made them
See also:apt for
See also:slavery . It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius, but long continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributary to the Great King . Thoroughly subdued at last by the
See also:satrap Datames, Cappadocia recovered independence under a single ruler, Ariarathes (hence called Ariarathes I.), who was a contemporary of
See also:Alexander the Great, and maintained himself on the
See also:throne of Cappadocia after the fall of the Persian
See also:monarchy . The province was not visited by Alexander, who contented himself with the tributary
See also:acknowledgment of his
See also:sovereignty made by Ariarathes before the conqueror's departure from Asia Minor; and the continuity of the native
See also:dynasty was only interrupted for a
See also:short time after Alexander's
See also:death, when the kingdom fell, in the general
See also:partition of the empire, to Eumenes . His claims were made good in 322 by the
See also:Perdiccas, who crucified Ariarathes; but in the dissensions following Eumenes's death, the son of Ariarathes recovered his
See also:inheritance and left it to a
See also:line of successors, who mostly
See also:bore the name of the founder of the dynasty . Under the
See also:fourth of the name Cappadocia came into relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of
See also:Antiochus the Great, then as an ally against
See also:Perseus of Macedon . The kings henceforward threw in their lot with the Republic as against the Seleucids, to whom they had been from time to time tributary . Ariarathes V. marched with the Roman proconsul Crassus against
See also:Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergammum, and their forces were annihilated (130 B.C.) . The imbroglio which followed his death ultimately led to interference by the rising power of Pontus and the intrigues and
See also:wars which ended in the failure of the dynasty . The Cappadocians, sup-ported by Rome against
See also:Mithradates, elected a native
See also:Ariobarzanes, to succeed (93 B.C.); but it was not till Rome had disposed at once of the Pontic and Armenian kings that his
See also:rule was established (63 B.C.) . In the
See also:civil wars Cappadocia was now for
See also:Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him . The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its
See also:stead, by favour first of Antony, then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence till A.D .
17, when theemperor Tiberius, on Archelaus's death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a province .
See also:Vespasian in A.D . 70 joined Armenia Minor to it and made the combined province a frontier
See also:bulwark . It remained, under various provincial redistributions, part of the Eastern Empire till
See also:late in the rrth century, though often ravaged both by Persians and
See also:Arabs . But before it passed into Seljuk hands (1074), and from them ultimately to the Osmanlis, it had, already become largely Armenian in religion and speech; and thus we find the southern part referred to as " Hermeniorum terra " by crusading chroniclers . At this
See also:day the north-east and east parts of the province are largely inhabited by Armenians . The native kings had done much to Hellenize Cappadocia, which had previously received a strong Iranian
See also:colour; but it was left to
See also:Christianity to
See also:complete their
See also:work . Though pre-Hellenic usages long survived in the local cults and habits, a part of the people has remained more or less Hellenic to this day, in spite of its envelopment by Moslem conquerors and converts . The tradition of its early
See also:church, illuminated by the names of the two Gregories and
See also:Basil of Caesarea, has been perpetuated by the survival of a native Orthodox
See also:element throughout the west and north-west of the province; and in the remoter valleys Greek speech has never wholly died out . Its use has once more become general under Greek propagandist influence, and the Cappadocian " Greeks " are now a flourishing community .
CAPONIER (from the Fr. caponniere, properly a capon...
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