See also:ancient city of
See also:Campania, and one of the most important towns of ancient Italy, situated 16 m . N. of Neapolis, on the N.E. edge of the Campanian plain . Its site in a position not naturally defensible, together with the regularity of its plan, indicates that it is not a very ancient
See also:town, though it very likely occupies the site of an early Oscan settlement . Its foundation is attributed by
See also:Cato to the Etruscans, and the date given as about 26o years before it was " taken " by Rome (Vell. i . 7) . If this be referred, not to its capture in the second Punic War (211 B.C.) but to its submission to Rome in 338 B.C., we get about 600 B.C. as the date of its foundation, a
See also:period at which the
See also:Etruscan power was at its highest, and which may perhaps, therefore, be accepted.' The origin of the name is probably Campus, a plain,2 as the adjective Camuanus shows, Capuanus being a later
See also:form stigmatized as incorrect by Varro (De L . L. x . 16) . The derivation from Kaaus (a
See also:vulture, Latinized into Volturnum by some authorities who tell us that this was the
See also:original name), and that from caput (as though the name had been given it as the "
See also:head " of the twelve Etruscan cities of Campania), must be rejected . G . Patroni, in Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche (Rome, 1904), v . 217, is inclined to place it considerably earlier .
See also:Livy iv . 37, " Vulturnum Etruscorum urbem quae nunc
See also:Capua est, ab Samnitibus captam (425 B.C.) Capuamque ab duce eorum Capye, vel, quod propius vero est, a campestri agro appellatam." The Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the Samnite invasion in the latter
See also:half of the 5th century B.C . (see CAMPANIA); these conquerors, however, entered into affiance with Rome for
See also:protection against the Samnite
See also:mountain tribes, and with Capua came the dependent communities
See also:Atella, so that the greater
See also:part of Campania now fell under
See also:Roman supremacy . The citizens received the civitas sine suffragio . In the second Samnite War they proved untrustworthy, so that the Ager Falerius on the right
See also:bank of the Volturnus was taken from them and distributed among citizens of Rome, the tribes Falerna being thus formed; and in 318 the
See also:powers of the native officials (meddices) were limited by the
See also:appointment of officials with the title praefecti Capuam Cumas (taking their name from the most important towns of Campania); these were at first mere deputies of the praetor urbanus, but after 123 B.C. were elected Roman magistrates, four in number; they governed the whole of Campania until the
See also:time of
See also:Augustus, when they were abolished . In 312 B.C . Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the Via
See also:Appia, the most important of the military highways of Italy . The
See also:gate by which it
See also:left the Servian walls of Rome
See also:bore the name
See also:Porte, Capena—perhaps the only case in which a gate in this
See also:enceinte bears the name of the place to which it led . At what time the Via
See also:Latina was prolonged to Casilinum is doubtful (it is quite possible that it was done when Capua fell under Roman supremacy, i.e. before the construction of the Via .Appia); it afforded a route only 6 m. longer, and the difficulties in connexion with its construction were much less; it also avoided the troublesome
See also:journey through the Pomptine Marshes (see T .
See also:Ashby in Papers of the
See also:British School at Rome, i . 217,
See also:London, 1902) . The importance of Capua increased steadily during the 3rd century, and at the beginning of the second Punic War it was considered to be only slightly behind Rome and
See also:Carthage themselves, and was able to furnish 30,000
See also:infantry and 4000
See also:cavalry .
Until after the defeat of
See also:Cannae it remained faithful to Rome, but, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it, it transferred its
See also:allegiance to Hannibal, who made it his winter-quarters, with
See also:bad results to the morale of his troops (see PUNIC
See also:WARS) . After a long
See also:siege it was taken by the Romans in 211 B.C. and severely punished; its magistrates and communal organization were abolished, the inhabitants losing their civic rights, and its territory became Roman state domain . Parts of it were sold in 205 and 149 B.C., another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and
See also:Liternum established near the
See also:coast in 194 B.C., but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state . Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, and it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 B.C . It was, after that period, let, not to large but to small proprietors . Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to
See also:divide the
See also:land among new settlers .
See also:Brutus in 83 B.C. actually succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved; and
See also:Cicero's speeches De Lege Agraria were directed against a similar attempt by Servilius
See also:Rullus in 63 B.c . In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly-populated
See also:district was in a measure supplied by grouping them
See also:round important shrines, especially that of
See also:Diana Tifatina, in connexion with which a pagus Dianae existed, as we learn from many inscriptions; a pagus Herculaneus is also known . The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, and was entirely dependent on the praefecti . It enjoyed
See also:great prosperity, however, owing to its spelt, which was worked into groats,
See also:roses, spices, unguents, &c., and also owing to its manufactures, especially of
See also:objects, of which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms (De agr . 135; Hist . Nat.
See also:xxiv .
95) . Its luxury remained proverbial; and Campania is especially spoken of as thehome of gladiatorial combats . From the gladiatorial
See also:schools of Campania came
See also:Spartacus and his followers in 73 B.C .
See also:Julius Caesar as
See also:consul in 59 B.C. succeeded in carrying out the
See also:establishment of a colony in connexion with his agrarian
See also:law, and 20,00o Roman citizens were settled in this territory . The number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony, Augustus (who constructed an aqueduct from the
See also:Mons Tifata, and gave the town of Capua estates in the district of
See also:Cnossus in Crete to the value of 12 million sesterces—120,000), and
See also:Nero . In the war of A.D . 69 it took the side of
See also:Vitellius . Under the later
See also:empire it is not often mentioned; but in the 4th century it was the seat of the consularis Campaniae and its chief town, though Ausonitis puts it behind Mediolanum (Milan) and
See also:Aquileia in his ordo nobilium urbium . Under
See also:Constantine we hear of the foundation of a Christian
See also:church in Capua . In A.D . 456 it was taken and destroyed by Genseric, but must have been soon rebuilt: it was, however, finally destroyed by the
See also:Saracens in 84o and the church of S . Maria Maggiore, founded about 497, alone remained .
It contains 52 ancientmarble columns, but was modernized in 1766 . The site was only occupied in the
See also:middle ages by a
See also:village which has, however, outgrown the
See also:medieval Capua in
See also:modern days . Remains.—No pre-Roman remains have been found within the town of Capua itself, but important cemeteries have been discovered on all sides of it, the earliest of which go back to the 7th or 6th century B.C . The tombs are of various forms, partly
See also:chambers with frescoes on the walls, partly cubical blocks of
See also:peperino, hollowed out, with grooved lids . The objects found within them consist mainly of vases of bronze (many of them without feet, and with incised designs of Etruscan
See also:style) and of
See also:clay, some of Greek, some of
See also:local manufacture, and of paintings . On the east of the town, in the Patturelli
See also:property, a
See also:temple has been discovered with Oscan votive inscriptions, some of them inscribed upon terra-cotta tablets, others on cippi, while of a
See also:group of 150 tuf a statuettes (representing a matron holding one or more
See also:children in her
See also:lap) three bore Latin inscriptions of the early imperial period . The site of the town being in a perfectly
See also:flat plain, without natural defences, it was possible to
See also:lay it out regularly . Its length from east to west is accurately determined by the fact that the Via Appia, which runs from
See also:north-west to south-east from Casilinum to Calatia, turns due east very soon after passing tie so-called Arco Campano (a triumphal arch of
See also:brickwork, once faced with marble, with three openings, erected in
See also:honour of some emperor unknown), and continues to run in this direction for 54131
See also:English feet (= 6000 ancient Oscan feet) . The west gate was the Porta
See also:Romana; remains of the east gate (the name of which we do not know) have been found . This fact shows that the
See also:main street of the town was perfectly orientated, and that before the Via Appia was constructed, i.e. in all probability in pre-Roman times . The width of the town from north to south cannot be so accurately deter-
See also:mined as the
See also:line of the north and south walls is not known, though it can be approximately, fixed by the
See also:absence of tombs (Beloch fixes it at 4000 Oscan feet = 3609 English feet), nor is it absolutely certain (though it is in the highest degree probable, for Cicero praises its
See also:regular arrangement and
See also:fine streets) that the plan of the town was rectangular . Within the town are remains of thermae on the north of the Via Appia and of a theatre opposite, on the south .
The former consisted of a large cryptoporticus round three sides of a
See also:court, the south side being open to the road; it now lies under the prisons . Beloch (see below) attributes this to the Oscan period; but the construction as shown in Labruzzi's
See also:drawing (v . 17) is partly of
See also:work and
See also:opus reticulatum, which may, of course, belong to a restoration . The stage of the theatre had its back to the road; Labruzzi (v . 18) gives an interesting view of the
See also:cavea . It appears from inscriptions that it was erected after the time of Augustus . Other inscriptions, however, prove the existence of a theatre as early as 94 B.C., so that the existence of another elsewhere must be assumed . We know that the Roman colony was divided into regions and possessed a capitolium, with a temple of
See also:Jupiter, within the town, and that the market-place, for unguents especially, was called Seplasia; we also hear of an aedes
See also:alba, probably the original
See also:house, which stood in an open space known as albana . But the sites of all these are quite uncertain . Outside the town on the north is the amphitheatre, built in the For these drawings see T . Ashby, " Dessins inedits de Carlo Labruzzi," in Melanges de l'Ecole francaise, 1903, 414.time of Augustus, restored by
See also:Hadrian and dedicated by
See also:Pius, as the inscription over the main entrance recorded . The exterior was formed by 8o Doric arcades of four storeys each, but only two
See also:arches now remain .
The keystones were adorned with heads of divinities . The interior is better preserved; beneath the
See also:arena are subterranean passages like those in the amphitheatre at
See also:Puteoli . It is one of the largest in existence; the longer diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 152, and the arena
See also:measures 83 by 49 yds., the corresponding dimensions in the colosseum at Rome being 2o5, 170, 93 and 58 yds . To the east are considerable remains of baths—a large octagonal
See also:building, an apse against which the church of S . Maria delle Grazie is built, and several heaps of debris . On the Via Appia, to the south-east of the east gate of the town, are two large and well-preserved tombs of the Roman period, known as le Carceri vecchie and la Conocchia . To the east of the amphitheatre an ancient road, the Via Dianae, leads north to the Pagus Dianae, on the west slopes of the Mons Tifata, a community which sprang up round the famous and ancient temple of Diana, and probably received an
See also:independent organization after the abolition of that of Capua in 211 B.C . The place often served as a
See also:base for attacks on the latter, and Sulla, after his defeat of C .
See also:Norbanus, gave the whole of the mountain to the temple . Within the territory of the pages were several other temples with their magistri . After the restoration of the community of Capua, we find magistri of the temple of Diana still existing, but they were probably officials of Capua itself . The site is occupied by the
See also:Benedictine church of S .
Angelo in Formis 2 which
See also:dates from 944, and was reconstructed by the
See also:Desiderius (afterwards
See also:Pope Victor III.) of
See also:Monte Cassino in 1073, with interesting paintings, dating from the end of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th, in which five different styles may be distinguished . They form a
See also:representation of all the chief episodes of the New Testament (see F . X . Kraus, Jahrbuch d. k. preuss . Kunstsammlungen, xiv.) . Deposits of votive objects (favissae), removed from the ancient temple from time to time as new ones came in and occupied all the available space, have been found, and considerable remains of buildings belonging to the Vicus Dianae (among them a triumphal arch and some
See also:baths, also a
See also:hall with frescoes, representing the goddess herself ready for the
See also:chase) still exist . The ancient road from Capua went on beyond the Vicus Dianae to the Volturnus (remains of the
See also:bridge still exist) and then turned east along the
See also:river valley to
See also:Caiatia and
See also:Telesia . Other roads ran to Puteoli and
See also:Cumae (the so-called Via Campana) and to Neapolis, and as we have seen the Via Appia passed through Capua, which was thus the most important road centre of Campania (q.v.) . See Th .
See also:Mommsen in Corpus Inscrip .
See also:Lat. x . (Berlin, 1883), p .
365 seq . ; J . Beloch, Campanien (
See also:Breslau, 1890), 295 seq.; Ch . Hiilsen in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie (
See also:Stuttgart, 1899), iii . 1555 . (T .
CAPUA (anc. Casilinum;, a town and archiepiscopal s...
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