CARIA , an
See also:district of
See also:Asia Minor, bounded on the N. by
See also:Ionia and
See also:Lydia, on the W. and S. by the
See also:Sea, and on the E. by
See also:Lycia and a small
See also:part of
See also:Phrygia . The
See also:line consists of a succession of
See also:great promontories alternating with deep inlets . The most important inlet, the Ceramic Gulf, or Gulf of Cos, extends inland for 70 m., between the great
See also:mountain promontory terminating at Myndus on the
See also:north, and that which extends to
See also:Cnidus and the remarkable headland of Cape Krio on the south . North of this is the deep
See also:bay called in ancient times the Gulf of Iasus (now known as the Gulf of Mendeliyah), and beyond this again was the deeper inlet which formerly extended inland between
See also:Miletus and
See also:Priene, but of which the
See also:outer part has been entirely filled up by the alluvial deposits of the Maeander, while the innermost
See also:arm, the ancient Latmic Gulf, is now a lake . South of Cape Krio again is the gulf known as the Gulf of
See also:Doris, with several subordinate inlets, bounded on the south by the rugged promontory of Cynossema (mod . Cape Alupo) . Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in
See also:modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean . Almost the whole of Caria is mountainous . The two great masses of
See also:Cadmus (Baba-dagh) and Salbacum (Boz-dagh), which are in fact portions of the great chain of
See also:Taurus (see AsIA MINOR),
See also:form the nucleus to which the whole
See also:physical framework of the
See also:country is attached . From these lofty ranges there extends a broad tableland (in many parts more than 3000 ft. high), while it sends down offshoots on the north towards the Maeander, and on the west towards the Aegean . Of these ranges the
See also:summit of Mt Latmus alone reaches 4500 ft . The coast is fringed by numerous islands, in some instances separated only by narrow straits from the mainland .
Of these the most celebrated areRhodes and Cos . Besides these are
See also:Syme, Telos, Nisyros, Calymnos, Leros and
See also:Patmos, all of which have been inhabited, both in ancient and modern times, and some of which contain excellent harbours . Of these Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same lime-
See also:stone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast . The country known as Caria was shared between ?the Carians proper and the Caunians, who were a wilder
See also:people, inhabiting the district between Caria and Lycia . They were not considered to be of the same
See also:blood as the Carians, and were, therefore, excluded from the
See also:temple of the Carian
See also:Zeus at Mylasa, which was
See also:common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though their language was the same as that of the Carians proper .
See also:Herodotus (i . 172) believed the Caunians to have been
See also:aborigines, the Carians having been originally called
See also:Leleges, who had been driven from the Aegean islands by the invading Greeks . This seems to have been a prevalent view among the Greek writers, for
See also:Thucydides (i . 8) states that when
See also:Delos was "purified" more than
See also:half the bodies found buried in it were those of " Carians." Modern archaeological
See also:discovery, however, is against this belief; and the fact that Mysus, Lydus and
See also:Car were regarded as
See also:brothers indicates that the three populations who worshipped together in the temple of Mylasa all belonged to the same stock .
See also:Homer (Il. x . 428-429) distinguishes the Leleges (q.v.) from the Carians, to whom is ascribed the invention of
See also:helmet-crests, coats of arms, and
See also:shield handles . A considerable number of
See also:short Carian inscriptions has been found, most of them in
See also:Egypt .
They were first noticed by
See also:Lepsius at
See also:Abu-Simbel, where he correctly inferred that they were the
See also:work of the Carian mercenaries of
See also:Psammetichus . The language, so far as it has been deciphered, is "Asianic" and not Indo-
See also:European . The excavations of W.R . Paton at Assarlik (Journ .
See also:Hell . Studies, 1887) and of F . Winter at Idrias have resulted in the discoveryof
See also:Late-Mycenaean and Geometric pottery . Caria, however, figured but little in
See also:history . It was absorbed into the
See also:kingdom of Lydia, where Carian troops formed the bodyguard of the
See also:king, Cnidus and
See also:Halicarnassus on the coast were colonized by
See also:Dorians . At Halicarnassus (q.v.) the
See also:Mausoleum, the
See also:monument erected by Artemisia to her
See also:Mausolus, about 36o B.C., was excavated by
See also:Sir C . T .
See also:Newton in 1857—1858 .
Cnidus (q.v.) was excavated at the same
See also:time, when the " Cnidian Lion," now in the
See also:British Museum, was found crowning a
See also:tomb near the site of the old city (C . T . Newton, History of Discoveries at Cnidus, Halicarnassus and Branchidae) . On the border-
See also:land between Caria and Lydia
See also:lay other Greek cities, Miletus, Priene, and
See also:Magnesia (see articles s.v.), colonized in early times by the
See also:Ionians . Inland was
See also:Tralles (mod .
See also:Aidin), which also had an Ionic population, though it never belonged to the Ionic confederacy (see TRALLES) . The excavations of the
See also:English in 1868-1869, of the French under O . Rayet and A .
See also:Thomas in 1873, and more recently of the Germans under Th . Wiegand and
See also:Schrader in 1895—1898 have laid
See also:bare the site of the Greek Priene, and the same has been done for the remains of Magnesia ad Maeandrum by French excavators in 1842—1843 and the German expedition under K . Humann in 1891—1893 . A German expedition under Th .
Wiegand carried on excavations at Miletus (see articles on these towns) . In thePersian epoch, native dynasts established themselves in Caria and even extended their
See also:rule over the Greek cities . The last of them seems to have been Pixodarus, after whose
See also:death the
See also:crown was seized by a Persian, Orontobates, who offered a vigorous resistance to
See also:Alexander the Great . But his capital, Halicarnassus, was taken after a
See also:siege, and the principality of Caria conferred by Alexander on Ada, a princess of the native
See also:dynasty . Soon afterwards the country was incorporated into the Syrian
See also:empire and then into the kingdom of
See also:Pergamum . See W . M .
See also:Ramsay, "
See also:Historical Geography of Asia Minor " (R.G.S. iv., 189o) ; W .
See also:Ruge and E .
See also:Friedrich, Archdologische Karte von Kleinasien (1899) ;
See also:Perrot and Chipiez, History of
See also:Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia (Eng. trans., 1892) ; A . H .
See also:Sayce, " The Karian Language and Inscriptions " (T.S.B.A. ix .
1, 1887) ; P . Kretschmer, Einleitung indie Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, pp . 376-384 (1896) . For the coinage see
See also:NUMISMATICS . (A . H .
CARGO (Span. for " loading," from Lat. carries, car...
CARIACO, or SAN FELIPE DE AUSTRIA
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