Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 339 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CARLINGFORD, a small market town and port of Co. Louth, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division. Pop. (1901) 6o6. It is beautifully situated on the western shore of Carlingford Lough, at the foot of Carlingford Mountain (1935 ft.), facing the fine heights of the Mourne Mountains across the lough in Co. Down. It has a station on the railway connecting Greenore and Newry, owned by the London & North-Western railway of England. It was formerly a place of great importance, as attested by numerous remains. King John's Castle (1210) commands the lough from an isolated rock. There are other remains of the castellated houses erected during the Elizabethan and previous wars. A Dominican monastery was founded in 1305, and combines ecclesiastical and military remains. The town received several charters between the reigns of Edward II. and James II., was represented in the Irish parliament until the Union, and possessed a mint from 1467. The lough is a typical rock-basin hollowed out by glacial action, about 4 fathoms deep at its entrance, but increasing to four times that depth within. The oyster-beds are valuable. CARLI-RUBBI, GIOVANNI RINALDO, COUNT OF (1720-1795), Italian economist and antiquarian, was born at Capo d' Istria, in 1720. At the age of twenty-four he was appointed by the senate of Venice to the newly established professorship of astronomy and navigation in the university of Padua, and entrusted with the superintendence of the Venetian marine. After fillingthese offices for seven years with great credit, he resigned them, in order to devote himself to the study of antiquities and political economy. His principal economic works are his Delle monete, e della instituzione delle zecche d' Italia; his Ragionamento sopra i bilanci economici delle nazioni (1759), in which he maintained that what is termed the balance of trade between two nations is no criterion of the prosperity of either, since both may be gainers by their reciprocal transactions; and his Sul libero commercio dei gran (1791), in which he argues that free trade in grain is not always advisable. Count Carli's merits were appreciated by Leopold of Tuscany, afterwards emperor, who in 1765 placed him at the head of the council of public economy and of the board of public instruction. In 1769 he became privy councillor, in 1771 president of the new council of finances. He died at Milan in February 1795. During his leisure he completed and published his Antichitd Italiche, in which the literature and arts of his country are ably discussed. Besides the above, he published many works on antiquarian, economic and other subjects, including L' Uomo libero, in confutation of Rousseau's Contrat Social; an attack upon the abbe Tartarotti's assertion of the existence of magicians; Observazioni sulla musica antica e moderna; and several poems.
End of Article: CARLINGFORD

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