CARNEA , one of the
See also:national festivals of
See also:Sparta, held in
See also:honour of
See also:Apollo Carneus . Whether Carneus (or Carnus) was originally an old Peloponnesian divinity subsequently identifiedwith Apollo, or merely an " emanation " from him, is uncertain; but there seems no reason to doubt that Carneus means " the
See also:god of flocks and herds " (
See also:Hesychius, s.v . Kapvos), in a wider sense, of the
See also:harvest and the vintage . The chief centre of his worship was Sparta, where the Carnea took place every
See also:year from the 7th to the 15th of the
See also:month Carneus (=Metageitnion,
See also:August) . During this
See also:period all military operations were suspended . The Carnea appears to have been at once agrarian, military and piacular in character . In the last aspect it is supposed to commemorate the
See also:death of Carnus, an Acarnanian seer and favourite of Apollo, who, being suspected of espionage, was slain by one of the
See also:Heraclidae during the passage of the
See also:Dorians from Naupactus to
See also:Peloponnesus . By way of punishment, Apollo visited the army with a pestilence, which only ceased after the institution of the Carnea . The tradition is probably intended to explain the sacrifice of an animal (perhaps a later substitute for a human being) as the representative of the god . The agrarian and military sides of the festival are clearly distinguished . (I) Five unmarried youths (Kapveanac) were chosen by lot from each [tribe] for four years, to superintend the proceedings, the officiating
See also:priest being called 6y17Tiis ("
See also:leader ") . A man decked with garlands (possibly the priest himself) started
See also:running, pursued by a
See also:band of
See also:young men called v- e/N Ao*pbuom (" running with bunches of grapes in their hands ") ; if he was caught, it was a
See also:guarantee of
See also:fortune to the city; if not, the
See also:reverse .
(2) In the second
See also:part of the festival nine tents were set up in the
See also:country, in each of which nine citizens, representing the phratries (or obae), feasted together in honour of the god (for huts or booths extemporized as shelters compare the Jewish feast of
See also:Tabernacles; and see W . Warde
See also:Fowler in Classical Review,
See also:March 1908, on the country festival in
See also:Tibullus ii . I) . According to
See also:Demetrius of Scepsis (in
See also:Athenaeus iv . 141), the Carnea was an imitation of
See also:life in
See also:camp, and everything was done in accordance with the command of a
See also:herald . In regard to the sacrifice, which doubtless formed part of the ceremonial, all that is known is that a ram was sacrificed at
See also:Thurii . Other indications point to the festival having assumed a military character at an early date, as might have been expected among the warlike Dorians, although some scholars deny this . The general meaning of the agrarian ceremony is clear, and has numerous
See also:parallels in
See also:European harvest-customs, in which an animal (or man disguised as an animal) was pursued by the reapers, the animal if caught being usually killed; in any case, both the man and the animal represent the vegetation spirit . E . H . Binney in Classical Review (March 1905) suggests that the
See also:story of
See also:Alcestis was performed at the Carnea (to which it may have become attached with the name of Apollo) as a vegetation drama, and " embodied a Death and Resurrection ceremony." The great importance attached to the festival and its month is shown in several instances . It was responsible for the delay which prevented the Spartans from assisting the Athenians at the
See also:battle of
See also:Marathon (
See also:Herodotus vi. ro6), and for the despatch of a small advance guard under
See also:Leonidas to hold Thermopylae instead of the
See also:main army (Herodotus vii .
206) . Again, when
See also:Epidaurus was attacked in 419 by
See also:Argos, the movements of the Spartans under
See also:Agis against the latter were interrupted until the end of the month, while the Argives (on whom, as Dorians, the
See also:custom was equally binding), by manipulating the
See also:calendar, avoided the
See also:necessity of suspending operations (see
See also:Grote, Hist. of
See also:Greece, ch . 56;
See also:Thucydides v . 54) . See S . Wide, Lakonische Kulte (1893), and article " Karneios " in Roscher's Lexikon; L . Couve in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire
See also:des antiquitis; W . Mannhardt, Mythologische Forschungen (1883), p . 170, and Wald- and Feldkulte (2nd ed., 1905), ii . 254; L . Farrell, Cults of the Greek States, iv . (1907) ; G .
Schumann, Griechische Altertumer (ed . J . H . Lipsius, 19o2); J . G . Frazer on
See also:Pausanias, iii . 13, 3; H . Usener in Rheinisches Museum, liii . (1898), p . 377; J . Vurtheim in Mnemosyne, xxxi . (1903), p .
CARNATYC, or KARNATAK (Kannada, Karnata, Karnatakad...
CARNEADES (214–129 B.C.)
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