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CARNIOLA (Ger. Krain)

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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 366 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CARNIOLA (Ger. Krain)  , a duchy and
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crown-
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land of Austria, bounded N. by Carinthia, N.E. by Styria, S.E. and S. by Croatia, and W. by Gorz and
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Gradisca, Trieste and Istria . It has an
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area of 3856 sq. m . Carniola is for the most
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part a mountainous region, occupied in the N. by the
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Alps, and in the S. by the
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Karst (q.v.) or Carso Mountains . It is traversed by the Julian Alps, the Karawankas and the Steiner Alps, which belong all to the
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southern zone of the Eastern Alps . The highest point in the Julian Alps is formed by the three
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sugar-
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loaf peaks of the Triglav or Terglou (9394 ft.), which offers one of the finest views in the whole of the Alps, and which bears on its
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northern declivity the only glacier in the province . The Triglav is the dividing range between the Alps and the Karst Mountains, and its huge mass also forms the barrier between three races: the German, the
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Slavonic and the
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Italian . Other high peaks are the Ma.ngart (8784 ft.) and the Jaluz (8708 ft.) . The Karawankas, which form the boundary between Carinthia and Carniola, have as their highest
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peak the Stou or Stuhlberg (7344 ft.), and are traversed by the Loibl Pass (4492 ft.) . They are continued by the Steiner or Santhaler Alps, which have as their highest peak the Grintouz or Grintovc (8393 ft.) . This peak is situated on the threefold boundary of Carinthia, Carniola and Styria, and affords a magnificent view of the whole Alpine neighbouring region . The southern part of Carniola is occupied by the following divisions of the northern ramifications of the Karst Mountains: the Birnbaumer Wald with the highest peak, the Nanos (4275 ft.), and the Krainer
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Schneeberg (5890 ft.); the Hornwald with the highest peak, the Hornbiichl (3608 ft.), and the Uskokengebirge (3874 ft.) . The portion of Carniola belonging to the Karst region presents a
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great number of caves, subterranean streams, funnels and similar phenomena .

Amongst the best-known are the grottos of

Adelsberg, the larger ones of, Planina and the Kreuzberghohle near Laas . With the exception of the
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Idria and the Wippach, which as tributaries of the Isonzo belong to the basin of the Adriatic, Carniola belongs to the
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watershed of the Save . The Save or Sau rises within the duchy, and is formed by the junction at Radmannsdorf of its two head-streams the Wurzener Save and the Wocheiner Save . Its
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principal affluents are the
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Kanker and the Steiner Feistritz on the
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left, and the Zeyer or
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Sora, the Laibach and the Gurk on the right . The most remarkable of these rivers is the Laibach, which rises in the Karst region under the name of Poik, takes afterwards a subterranean course and traverses the Adelsberg grotto, and appears again on the
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surface near Planina under the name of Unz . Shortly after this it takes for the second time a subterranean course, to appear finally on the surface near Oberlaibach . The small torrent of Rothwein, which flows into the Wurzener Save, forms near Veldes the splendid series of cascades known as the Rothwein Fall . Amongst the principal lakes are the Wochein, the
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Weissenfels, the Veldes, and the seven small lakes of the Triglav; while in the Karst region lies the famous periodical lake of Zirknitz, known to the Romans as Lacus Lugens or Lugea Palus . The
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climate is rather severe, and the southern part is exposed to the cold north-eastern wind, known as the
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Bora . The mean
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annual temperature at Laibach is 48.4° F., and the rainfall amounts to 72 ins . Of the
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total area only 14.8% is under cultivation, and the crops do not suffice for the needs of the province; forests occupy 44'4%, 17'2% are meadows, 15.7% are pastures, and 1'17% of the
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soil is covered by vineyards . Large quantities of
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flax are grown, while the
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timber trade is of considerable importance .

Fish and
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game are plentiful, and the silkworm is bred in the warmer districts . The principal
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mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore,
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zinc and
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coal are also found . The industry is not well
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developed, but the
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weaving of
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linen and lace is pursued as a household industry . Carniola had in 1900 a population of 508,348, which corresponds to 132 inhabitants per sq. m . Nearly 95% were Slovenes and 5% Germans, while 99% of the population belonged to the
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Roman Catholic Church . The
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local
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diet, of which the bishop of Laibach is a member ex officio, is composed of
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thirty-seven members, and Carniola sends eleven deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna . For administrative purposes the province is divided into eleven districts and one autonomous
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municipality, Laibach (pop . 36,547), the capital . Other important places are Oberlaibach (5882), Idria (5772), Gurkfeld (5294), Zirknitz (5266), Adelsberg (3636), Neumarktl (2626), Krainburg (2484) and Gottschee (2421) . Carniola derives its
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modern name from the Slavonic word Krajina (frontier) . During the Roman
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Empire it formed part of Noricum and
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Pannonia . The Slavonic population settled here during the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th century .

Conquered by

Charlemagne, the most of the
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district was bestowed on the duke of Friuli; but in the loth century the title of margrave of Carniola began to be borne by a
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family
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resident in the castle of Kieselberg near Krainburg . Various parts of the
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present territory were, however, held by other lords, such as the duke of Carinthia and the bishop of
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Freising . Towards the close of the 14th century all the
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separate portions ha4 come by
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inheritance or bequest into the hands of Rudolph IV. of Austria, who took the title of duke of Carniola; and since then the duchy has remained a part of the
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Austrian possessions, except during the short period from 1809 to 1813, when it was incorporated with the French Illyrian Provinces . In 1849 it became a separate crown-land . See Dimitz, Geschichte Krains von der altesten -Zeit bis 1813 (4 vols., Laibach, 1874-1876) .

End of Article: CARNIOLA (Ger. Krain)
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