CAROLINGIANS , the name of a
See also:family (so called from Charlemagne, its most illustrious member) which gained the
See also:throne of France A.D . 751 . It appeared in
See also:history in 613, its origin being traced_to
See also:Arnulf .(Arnoul),
See also:bishop of
See also:Metz, and
See also:Pippin, long called Pippin of Landen, but more correctly Pippin the Old or Pippin I . Albeit of illustrious descent, the genealogies which represent Arnulf as an Aquitanian
See also:noble, and his family as connected—by more or less complicated devices—with the
See also:saints honoured in
See also:Aquitaine, are worthless, dating from the
See also:time of
See also:Louis the Pious in the 9th century . Arnulf was one of the Austrasian nobles who appealed to
See also:Clotaire II.,
See also:king of
See also:Neustria, against
See also:Brunhilda, and it was in
See also:reward for his services that he received from Clotaire the bishopric of Metz (613) . Pippin, also an Austrasian noble, had taken a prominent
See also:part in the. revolution of 613 . These two men Clotaire took as his counsellors; and when he decided in 623 to confer the
See also:kingdom of
See also:Austrasia upon his son Dagobert, they were appointed mentors to the Austrasian king, Pippin with the title of mayor of the palace . Before receiving his bishopric, Arnulf had had a son Adalgiselus, afterwards called Anchis; Pippin's daughter, called Begga in later documents, was married to Arnulf's son, and of this union was
See also:born Pippin II . Towards the end of the 7th century Pippin II., called incorrectly Pippin of Heristal, secured a preponderant authority in Austrasia, marched at the
See also:head of the Austrasians against Neustria, and gained a decisive victory at Tertry, near St Quentin (687) . From that date he may be said to have been
See also:master of the Frankish kingdom, which he governed till his
See also:death (714) . In Neustria Pippin gave the mayoralty of the palace to his son Grimoald, and afterwards to Grimoald's son Theodebald;. the mayoralty in Austrasia he gave to his son Drogo, and subsequently to Drogo's
See also:children, Arnulf and Hugh .
See also:Charles Martel, however, a son of Pippin by a concubine ChalpaIda, seized the mayoralty in both kingdoms, and he it was who continued the Carolingian
See also:dynasty .
Charles Martel governed from 714 to 741 , and in 751 his son Pippin III. took the title of king, The Carolingian dynasty reigned in France from 751 to 987, when it was ousted by the Capetian dynasty . InGermany descendants of Pippin reigned till the death of Louis the
See also:Child in 911; in Italy the Carolingians maintained their position until the deposition of Charles the
See also:Fat in 887 . Charles, duke of
See also:Lorraine, who was thrown into prison by Hugh
See also:Capet in 991,
See also:left two sons, the last male descendants of the Carolingians,
See also:Otto, who was also duke of Lower Lorraine and died without issue, and Louis, who after the
See also:year soon vanishes from history . See P . A . F .
See also:Gerard and L . A . Warnkonig, Histoire
See also:des Carolingiens (Brussels, 1862) ; H . E . Bonnell, Anfange des Karoling . Hauses (Berlin, 1866); J .
See also:Bohmer and E . Muhlbacher, Regesten d . Kaiserreichs unter d . Karolingern (
See also:Innsbruck, 1889 seq.); E . Muhlbacher, Deutsche Gesch. unter d . Karolingern (
See also:Stuttgart, 1896) ; F . Lot,
See also:Les Derniers Carolingiens (
See also:Paris, 1891) . (C . Pe.) CAROLUS-DURAN, the name adopted by the French painter Charles Auguste Emile
See also:Durand (1837– ), who was born at
See also:Lille on the 4th of
See also:July 1837 . He studied at the Lille Academy and then went to Paris, and in 1861 to Italy and Spain for further study, especially devoting himself to the pictures of Velasquez . His subject picture " Murdered," or " The Assassina- . tion " (1866), was one of his first successes, and is now in the Lille museum, but he became best known afterwards as a portrait-painter, and as the head of one of the
See also:principal ateliers in Paris, where some of the most brilliant artists of a later generation were his pupils .
See also:Lady with the Glove " (1869), a portrait of his own wife,'was bought for the Luxembourg . In 1889 he was made a
See also:commander of the
See also:Legion of
See also:Honour . He became a member of the
See also:Academic des
See also:Beaux-arts in 1904, and in the next year was appointed director of the French academy at Rome in succession to
See also:Eugene Guillaume .
CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA (1768-1821)
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