CASSIUS , the name of a distinguished
See also:family, originally patrician . Its most important members are the following . I . SPURIUS CASSIUS, surnamed Vecellinus (Vicellinus, Viscellinus), Roman soldier and statesman, three times
See also:consul, and author of the first agrarian
See also:law . In his first consulate (502 B.C.) he defeated the Sabines; in his second (493) he renewed the
See also:league with the Latins, and dedicated the
See also:temple of Ceresin the
See also:Circus; in his third (486) he made a treaty with the conquered
See also:Hernici . The account of his agrarian law is confused and contradictory; it is clear, however, that it was intended to benefit the needy plebeians (see AGRARIAN
See also:LAWS) . As such it was violently opposed both by the
See also:patricians and by the wealthy plebeians . Cassius was condemned by the
See also:people as aiming at kingly power, and hurled from the Tarpeian
See also:rock . Another account says he was tried by the family council and put to
See also:death by his own
See also:father, who considered his proposal prejudicial to the patrician
See also:interest . According to
See also:Livy, his proposal to bestow a
See also:share of the
See also:land upon the Latins was regarded with
See also:great suspicion . According to
See also:Mommsen (Romische Forschungen, ii.), the whole
See also:story is an invention of a later age, founded upon the proposals of the Gracchi and M . Livius Drusus, to which
See also:period belongs the idea of sharing public land with the Latins .
See Livy ii . 33, 41;
See also:Dion Halic. v . 49, viii . 69-8o;
See also:Balbo, 23 (53), De Republica, ii . 27 (49), 35 (6o) ; Val . Max. v . 8 . 2 . The following Cassii are all plebeians . It is suggested that the sons of Spurius Cassius either were expelled from, or voluntarily
See also:left, the patrician
See also:order, in consequence of their father's execution . 2 .
See also:GAIUS CASSIUS
See also:LONGINUS, consul 73 B.C .
With his colleague, TerentiusVarro
See also:Lucullus, he passed a law (lex Terentia Cassia), the
See also:object of which was to give authority for the
See also:purchase of corn at the public expense, to be retailed at a fixed price at Rome . It is doubtful whether this Cassius (who is often called by the additional name Varus) is identical with the Varus who was proscribed by the triumvirs, and put to death at
See also:Minturnae (43) . According to
See also:Orosius he was killed at the
See also:battle of Mutina . See Cicero, In Verrem, 70, 75,V . 21; Livy, Epit . 96;
See also:Bell . Civ. iv . 28; Orosius v . 24 . , 3 . GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS,
See also:prime mover in the
See also:conspiracy against
See also:Julius Caesar . Little is known of his early
See also:life .
In 53 B.C. he served in the
See also:campaign under M .
See also:Licinius Crassus, saved the remnants of the army after the defeat at Carrhae, and for two years successfully repelled the enemy . In 49 B.C. he became tribune of the plebs . The outbreak of the
See also:civil war saved him from being brought to trial for extortion in
See also:Syria . He at first sided with
See also:Pompey, and as
See also:commander of
See also:part of his
See also:fleet rendered considerable service in the Mediterranean . After Pharsalus he became reconciled to Caesar, who made him one of his legates . In 44 B.C. he became praetor peregrinus with the promise of the Syrian province for the ensuing
See also:year . The
See also:appointment of his junior, M . Junius
See also:Brutus, as praetor urbanus deeply offended him, and he was one of the busiest conspirators against Caesar, taking an active part in the actual assassination . He then left Italy for Syria, raised a considerable army, and defeated P . Cornelius
See also:Dolabella, to whom the province had been assigned by the
See also:senate . On the formation of the triumvirate, Brutus and he, with their combined armies, crossed the
See also:Hellespont, marched through
See also:Thrace, and encamped near
See also:Philippi in
See also:Macedonia .
Their intention was to starve out the enemy, but they were forced into an engagement . Brutus was successful against Octavian, but Cassius, defeated by M .
See also:Antonius (Mark Antony), gave up all for lost, and ordered his freedman to slay him . He was lamented by Brutus as " the last of the Romans," and buried at
See also:Thasos . A man of consider-able ability, he was a
See also:good soldier, and took an interest in literature, but in politics he was actuated by vanity and ambition . His portrait in
See also:Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, though vivid, is scarcely
See also:historical . See Plutarch, Brutus, passim, Crassus, 27, 29, Caesar, 62, 69; Dio Cassius xl . 28, xlii . 13, xliv . 14, xlvii . 20; Veil . Pat. ii .
46, 56, 58, 69, 70, 87; Cicero,
See also:Philippics, xi . 13, 14, ad Att. v . 21, xiv . 21, ad Ram. xi . 3, 15, i6; Appian, Bell . Civ. ii . III, 113, iii . 2, 8, iv . 6o-62, 87, 90, 111-113, 132; Caesar, Bell Civ. iii. io1 . 4 .
See also:QUINTUS CASSIUS LONGINUS, the
See also:brother or
See also:cousin of the murderer of Caesar, quaestor of Pompey in Further Spain in 54 B.C . In 49, as tribune of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was made
See also:governor of Further Spain .
He treated the provincials with greatcruelty, and hi, appointment (48) to take the
See also:field against Juba,
See also:king of ),Vumidia, gave him an excuse for. fresh oppression . The result was an unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba . Cassius punished the leaders with merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than ever . At last some of his troops revolted under the quaestor NI .
See also:Marcellus, who was proclaimed governor of the province . Cassius was surrounded by Marcellus in Ulia . Bogud, king of
See also:Mauretania, and M .
See also:Lepidus, proconsul of Hither Spain, to whom Cassius had applied for assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was to be allowed to go
See also:free with the legions that remained loyal to him . Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters, hastened on
See also:ship at Malaca with his
See also:ill-gotten gains, but was wrecked in a
See also:storm at the mouth of the Iberus (
See also:Ebro) . His tyrannical
See also:government of Spain had greatly injured the cause of Caesar . See Dio Cassius xli . 15, 24, xlii .
15, 16, xliii . 29; Livy, Epit . III; Appian, B.C. ii . 33, 43; Bellum Alexandrinum, 48-64 . 5 . GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS (1stcentury A.D.), Roman jurist, consul in 30, proconsul of
See also:Asia 40-41, and governor of Syria under
See also:Claudius 45-50 . On his return to Rome his
See also:wealth and high character secured him considerable influence . He was banished by
See also:Nero (65) to
See also:Sardinia, because among the images of his ancestors he had preserved that of the murderer of Caesar . He was recalled by
See also:Vespasian, and died at an advanced age . As he was consul in 30, he must have been
See also:born at the latest in the year 3 B.C . Cassius was a
See also:pupil of Masurius Sabinus, with whom he founded a legal school, the followers of which were called Cassiani . His chief
See also:work was the Libri
See also:Civilis in ten books, which was used by the compilers of the
See also:Digest of Justinian .
See also:Annals, xvi . 7-9; Suetonius, Nero, 37; Dio Cassius lix . 29; Teuffel-
See also:Schwabe, Hist. of Roman Literature, §298, 3 .
CASSITRRITE (from the Gr. Kavvirepos, tin)
AVIDIUS CASSIUS (d. A.D. 175)
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