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CASTILE AND LEON TILL THE UNION WITH ...

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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 572 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CASTILE AND LEON TILL THE UNION WITH ARAGON. Fernando III. was king of Castile and Leon from I230 to 1252. Alphonso X. 1252-1284 Eldest son of Fernando III. Sancho IV. . 1284-1295 Second son of Alphonso X. Was preferred to the sons of his elder brother Ferdinand de la Cerda, who died in Alphonso's lifetime. Ferdinand IV. 1295-1312 Son of Sancho. Alphonso XI. . 1312-1350 Son of Ferdinand IV. Peter "The Cruel" 1350-1369 Son of Alphonso XI. Henry II. . 1369-1379 Natural son of Alphonso IX. He deposed and murdered Peter, and founded the line of the new kings. John I. . . 1379-1390 Son of Henry II. Henry III. . 1390-1406 Son of John I. John II. 1406-1454 Son of Henry III. Son. The legitimacy of the daughter of his second marriage Henry IV. . . 1454-1474 was not recognized, and the crown of Castile passed to his Isabella . . . 1474-1504 sister, who married Ferdinand of Aragon. The marriage united the crowns in 1479• Aragon, from the union with the county of Barcelona, to the union with Castile: Alphonso II. 1162-1196 Son and successor of Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer IV. Recovered the Provencal pos- sessions of Ramon Berenguer II. Peter II. . . 1196-1213 Son. Killed at Muret. James I., " The 1213-1276 Son. Conquered the Balearic Conqueror." Islands and Valencia. Left the islands to his son James, from whom the title passed in succ_es- . sion to Sancho (d. 1324), his eldest son, to Sancho's nephew James (d. 1349), and to another James, his son (d. 1375) ; but the actual possession was re- covered by the elder line before the extinction of the younger branch. Peter III. . . 1276-1285 Eldest son. Conquered Sicily, claimed by right of his wife Constance, daughter of Man- fred of Beneventum. Alphonso III. . 1285-1291 Eldest son. Succeeded to Spanish possessions. James II. . . 1291-1327 Second son of Peter III. He had succeeded to Sicily, but re- signed his rights, which were then assumed by his brother Frederick, who founded the Aragonese line of kings of Sicily. Alphonso IV. . 1327-1336 Son of James II. Peter IV. . . 1336-1387 Finally reannexed the Balearic Islands. John I. . . . 1387-1395 Son by the marriage of Peter IV. with his cousin Eleanor of the Sicilian line. Martin . . 1395-1410 Younger brother of John I. His son Martin was chosen king of Sicily, but died in 1409. The male line of the kings of Aragon of the House of Barcelona ended with Martin. Ferdinand I. . 1412-1416 Second son of Eleanor, sister of Martin, and wife of John I. of Castile. Succeeded by choice of the Cortes. Alphonso V. 1416-1458 Son. Spent most of his life in Italy, where he was king of Naples and Sicily. John II. . . 1458-1479 Brother of Alphonso V., whom he succeeded in the Spanish pos- sessions, and Sicily, but not in Naples. Ferdinand II. . 1479-1516 Son. His marriage with Isabella united the crowns. Sancho II. . Alphonso VI. Urraca . Alphonso VII. . Sancho III.. . 1157-1158 Fernando II. 1157-1188 Alphonso VIII.. 1158-1214 Alphonso IX. 1188-1230 Henry I. . Berengaria Fernando III. . He expelled Alphonso and Garcia, reuniting the three kingdoms. Murdered at Zamora. Returned from exile, obtained all the three kingdoms, and imprisoned Garcia for life. Daughter of Alphonso VI., and widow of Raymond of Burgundy. Son. Recognized as king in Gallicia during his mother's life. Divided his kingdoms between his sons; to the elder Sancho, Castile, to the younger, Fernando, Leon. In Castile. In Leon. Castile. Son of Sancho III. Leon. Son of Fernando II. Is numbered IX. because he was junior to the cousin Alphonso of Castile. Castile. Son of Alphonso VIII. Daughter of Alphonso VIII. Married to Alphonso IX. of Leon, but the marriage was declared uncanonical by the pope. The children were declared legitimate. Berengaria resigned the crown of Castile to her son Fernando by the uncanonical marriage with Alphonso IX. of Leon. Inherited Leon on the death of his father Alphonso IX., and united the crowns for the last time, in 1230. I005-I072 1065-1109 II09-II26 1126-1157 I214-I217 I217- I217-I252 Navarre'till the conquest of Ferdinand the Catholic: — KINGS OF UNITED SPAIN (continued) I Garcia IV. 1134–1150 A descendant of Sancho el Ferdinand VII. . 1808–1833 Was proclaimed king on the Mayor. Elected by the Navar- forced abdication of his father. rese on the death of Alphonso Remained a prisoner in France of Aragon without issue. during the Peninsular War. I-Ie repealed the Salic Law estab- Sancho VI., called 1150–1194 Son. Father of Berengaria, wife lished by Philip V. " The Wise " of Richard Coeur de Lion. Sancho VII. . 1194–1234 Son. Died without issue. Isabella II. . . i833–1868 Daughter. Her succession was resisted by her uncle Don Theobald I. 1234–1253 Husband of Blanche, daughter Carlos, and the Carlist Wars of Sancho " The Wise." ensued. Deposed. Theobald II. 1253–1270 Son. Died without issue. Alphonso XII. . 1875–1885 Son. His mother abdicated in Henry I. 1270–1274 Brother. his favour and he was re- stored. Jeanne I. 1274–1305 Daughter, wife of Philip IV. of France. Navarre was now Alphonso XIII. . 1886 Born after his father's death. (D. H.) (2) Works: The standard general history of Spain written by a Spaniard is that of Don Modesto Lafuente in 30 volumes (1850–1867; new ed., by Valera, 22 vols., Barcelona, 1888). It was written before the medieval period had been properly investigated, is wordy, and largely spoilt by displays of national vanity. A later and more critical writer of nearly the same name, Don Vicente de la Fuente, has published valuable Estudios criticos sobre la historia y el derecho de Aragon (1884–1886). No satisfactory general history of Spain has been written by a foreigner. The best is that of M. Ramey, Histoire d'Espagne (1843). Don Rafael Altamira has published an Historia de Espana y de la civilization espanola (2 vols., Barcelona, 1900-1902), in which he sums up the results of later research. Among older writers Juan de Mariana, who ends with the Catholic sovereigns, professedly took Livy as a model, and wrote a fine example of a rhetorical history published in Latin (1592–1609), and then in Spanish translated and largely re-written by himself. It was continued to 1600 by Minana. An English translation, with supplements, was published by Captain J. Stephens in 1699. The Anales de Aragon of Geronimo Zurita (161o) are very far superior to the history of Mariana in criticism and research. The great school of Spanish historians died out with the other glories of the nation in the 17th century. The later periods have been indifferently treated by them, but Don Antonio Canovas del Castillo published some valuable studies on the later Austrian dynasty under the title Estudios del reinado de Felipe IV. (1889). The reader may also consult—for the earlier period—Florian de Ocampo and Ambrosio de Morales, whose combined works are known as the CrOnica general de Espana (fol. editions, 1543–1586, republished in 10 small volumes at Madrid, 1791–1792). This was continued by Prudencio de Sandoval, bishop of Tuy and afterwards of Pampeluna, under the title of Hist. de los reyes de Castilla y de Leon: Fernando I. Alonso VII. Both ancient and later times are dealt with in the Historia general de Espana, escrita por individuos de la real academia de la historia (Madrid, 1892 sqq.)—a series of studies by different hands; that on the reign of Charles III., by Senor Manuel Danvila, is very valuable for the later 18th century. An account of the troubled years of the 19th century has been written by Don Antonia Pirala, Historia contempordnea (1871–1879). The latest general history of Spain is Don Rafael Altamira y Crevea's Historia de Espana y de la civilization espaliola, 3 vols(Barcelona 1902–1906). The standard authority for the Mahommedan side of Spanish history is the Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, 711–1110, by R. P. A. Dozy (4 vols., Leiden, 1861). It requires to be supplemented by Don Pascual de Gayongos's translation of Al Makkari's History of the Mahommedan Dynasties in Spain (1840–1843) and by Senor Francisco Codera's Decadencia y desaparicion de los Almoravides en Espana (Saragossa, 1899) and Estudios criticos de hist. arabe espaniola (ibid., 1903). See also Stanley Lane Poole, The Moors in Spain (" Story of the Nations " Series, 1887) and S. P. Scott, Hist. of the Moorish Empire in Europe (3 vols., Philadelphia and London, 1904). Other English works, on general Spanish history, are Martin A. S. Hume's Spain, its Greatness and Decay, 1479-1788 (Cambridge, 1898) and Modern Spain, 1788–1898 (" Story of the Nations " Series, 1899), and Butler Clarke's Modern Spain, 1815–1898 (Cambridge, 1906). Excellent summaries of Spanish history year by year are published in the Annual Register. Jeanne II. . . 1328–1349 Charles II., called 1349–1387 " The Bad " Charles III.,"The 1387–1425 Noble " John I. of Aragon 1425–1479 1479–1483 J 1483–1514 absorbed in France, and so remained till 1328, when on the death of Charles IV. of France, the last of the house of Hugh Capet, it passed to his niece Jeanne, daughter of Louis X., and wife of Philip, count of Evreux. Son. These two kings were much concerned with France, and little with Spain. King of Navarre by right of his wife Blanche, daughter of Charles III. On his death Navarre passed to his daughter by Blanche, Eleanor, widow of Gaston IV., count of Foix. She died in the same year as her father, and Navarre passed to her grand-son, Francis Phoebus. Died without issue, and was succeeded by his sister, the wife of Jean D'Albret. The Spanish part of Navarre was conquered by Ferdinand the Catholic in 1512. Francis Phoebus I Catherine
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