Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 578 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
CASTILIAN DIALECT S.—TO discover the features by which these are distinguished from normal Castilian we must turn to old charters and to certain modern compositions in which the provincial forms of speech have been reproduced more or less faithfully. Asturian.—The Asturian idiom, called by the natives bable, is differentiated from the Castilian by the following characters. le occurs, as in Old Castilian, in words formed with the suffix ellum (castiellu, portiellu), while modern Castilian has reduced ie to i. E, i, u, post-tonic for a, e, o: penes (penas), gracies (gracias), esti (este), frenti (renle), llechi (leche), nuechi (noche), unu (uno), primeru (primero). There is no guttural spirant, j, but, according to circumstances, y or x (s) ; thus Lat. cl, lj dives y: veyu (*v e c 1 u s), espeyu (s p e c ' l u m), conseyu (c o n s i l i u m) ; and after an i this y is hardly perceptible, to judge by the forms flu (f i 1 i u m), escoidos (Cast. escogidos), Castia (Castilla) ; Lat. g before e and i, Lat. initial j, and Lat. ss, x, give x (s)—xiente ( g e n t e m), xudiu (J u d a e u s), baxu (b a s s u s), coxu (c o x u s), floxu (f 1 u x u s). Lat. initial f has kept its ground, at least in part of the province: fiu, fueya (Cast. hijo, hoja). A very marked feature is the habitual " mouillure " of 1 and n as initial letters: lleche, !leer, lluna, !lulu; n"on, nunca, nueve, iiube. With respect to inflexion the following forms may be noted: personal pronouns: i (illi), yos (illos) ; possessive pronouns: mie, pl. mies; to, Los; so, sos for both masc. and fern.; verbs: 3rd pers. pl. imp. of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in in for ien (Cast. ian) ; train, Lenin, facin (from facer), fain (from fer), and even some instances of the 2nd pers. sing. (abis; Cast. habias); instances of pres. subj. in is for a (sirvia, metia, sepia). The verb ser gives yes (sometimes yeres) in the 2nd pers. sing., ye in the 3rd. F a c e r e appears under two forms facer and fer—and to the abridged form correspond feis4 fiendo, fiin, &c. r e often appears under the form dir (antes de diros = antes de iros), which it is not necessary to explain by de-iro (see H. Schuchardt, Ztschr. f. rom. Philol., v. 312). Navarrese-Aragonese.—Ir. its treatment of the post-tonic vowels this dialect parts company with normal Castilian and comes nearev Catalan, in so far as it drops the final e, especially after nt, it (monl4 plazient, snuert, flied, parents, gents) ; and, when the atonic e has dropped after a v, this v becomes a vowel—breu (b r e v e m), grieu (*g r e v e m), nueu (n o v e m). Navarrese-Aragonese has the diphthongs ie, ue from tonic e and o, and adheres more strictly to them than normal Castilian does—cuende (c o m i t e m), huey (h 6 d i e), pueyo (p o d i u ni), yes (e s t), yeran (e r a n t), while Castilian says conde, hoy, poyo, es, eran. The initial combinations Galicia (the modern provinces of Pontevedra, La Coruna, Orense, and Lugo) and of a portion of the old kingdom of Leon (the territory of Vierzo in the province of Leon). Portuguese, like Castilian, is a literary language, which for ages has served as the vehicle of the literature of the Portuguese nation constituted in the beginning of the 12th century. Galician, on the other hand, which began a literary life early in the middle ages—for it was employed by Alfonso the Learned in his Cantigas in honour of the Virgin—decayed in proportion as the monarchy of Castile and Leon, to which Galicia had been annexed, gathered force and unity in its southward conquest. At the present day Gallego, which is simply Portuguese variously modified and with a development in some respects arrested, is much less important than Catalan, not only because the Spaniards who speak it (z,800,000) are fewer than the Catalans (3,500,000), but also because, its literary culture having been early abandoned in favour of Castilian, it fell into the vegetative condition of a provincial patois. Speaking generally, Portuguese is further removed than Castilian from Latin; its development has gone further, and its actual forms are more worn out than those of the sister language, and hence it has, not without reason, been compared to French, with which it has some very notable analogies. But, on the other hand, Portuguese has remained more exclusively Latin in its vocabulary, and, particularly in its conjugation, it has managed to preserve several features which give it, as compared with Castilian, a highly archaic air. Old Portuguese, and more especially the poetic language of the 13th century, received from the language of the troubadours, in whose poetry the earlier Portuguese poets found much of their inspiration, certain words and certain turns of expression which have left upon it indelible traces. cl, pl, fl, have withstood the transformation into 11 better than in Castilian: piano, pleno, plega, clamado, Hama are current in old documents; and at the present day, although the l has come to be mouillee," the first consonant has not disappeared (plluma, pltora, pllano—pronounced pljuma, &c.). Lat. ct gives it, not ch as in Castilian: nueyt (n o c t e rn), destruito ( d e s t r u c t u m), proveito (p r o v e c t u m), dito for diito (d i c t u m). D between vowels kept its ground longer than in Castilian: documents of the 14th century supply such forms as vidieron, vido, hudio, provedir, red emir, prodeza, Benedit, vidiendo, &c.; but afterwards y came to be substituted fordordj: veyere (v ider e), seyer (s eder e),seya(se deat), goyo (g a u d i u m), enueyo (i n o d i u m). Initial f does not change into h: fillo, feito. Navarrese-Aragonese does not possess the guttural spirant (j) of Castilian, which is here rendered according to circumstances either by g (Fr. j) or by ll (l mouillee), but never by the Asturian x. Certain forms of the conjugation of the verb differ from the Castilian: dar, estar, haver, saber, poner readily form their imperfects and imperfect subjunctives like the regular verbs in ar and er—havieron (Cast. hubieron), estaron (Cast. estubieron), sabio (Cast. supo), dasen (Cast. diesen), poniese (Cast. pusiese) ; on the other hand, past participles and gerundives formed from the perfect are to be met with--fasiendo for faciendo (perf. fiso), tuviendo and tuvido for teniendo, tenido (perf. tuvo). In the region bordering on Catalonia the simple perfect has given way before the periphrastic form proper to Catalan: voy sayer (I fell), va fe (he has done), vamos ir (we went), &E.; the imperfects of verbs in er, ir, moreover, are found in eba, iba (comeba, subiba, for comia, subia), and some presents also occur where the Catalan influence makes itself felt: estigo (Cat. estich), vaigo (Cat. vaig), veigo (Cat. veig). Navarrese-Aragonese makes use of the adverb en as a pronoun: no les en daren pas, no'n hi ha. Andalusian.—The word " dialect " is still more appropriately applied to Andalusian than either to Asturian or Navarrese-Aragonese. Many peculiarities of pronunciation, however, are commonly called Andalusian which are far from being confined to Andalusia proper, but are met with in the vulgar speech of many parts of the Castilian domain, both in Europe and in America. Of these but a few occur only there, or at least have not yet been observed elsewhere than in that great province of southern Spain. They are the following: L, n, r, d between vowels or at the end of a word disappear: se( (sal), so (sot), viee (viene), tire (tiene), paa and pa (para), mia (mire), naa and na (nada), too and to (todo). D is dropped even from the beginning of a word: e (de), inero (dinero), on (don). Before an explosive, 1, r, d are often represented by i : saiga (saiga), vaiga (valga), laigo (largo), maire (madre), paire (padre). Lat. f is more rigorously represented by h than in normal Castilian, and this h here preserves the aspirate sound which it has lost elsewhere; habld, horma (forma), hoder, are pronounced with a very strong aspiration, almost identical with that of j. The Andalusians also very readily write these words jabia, jorma, joder. This aspirate, expressed by j, often has no etymological origin; for example, Jdndalo, a nickname applied to Andalusians, is simply the word Andaluz pronounced with the strong aspiration characteristic of the inhabitants of the province. C, z are seldom pronounced like s; but a feature more peculiar to the Andalusians is the inverse process, the softened and interdental pronunciation of the s (the so-called ceceo) : zenor (senor), &c. Before a consonant and at the end of a word s becomes a simple aspiration: mihmo (mismo), Dioh (Dios), do reales (dos reales). In the inflexion of the verb there is nothing special to note, except some instances of 2nd pers. sing. of the perfect in tes for te: estuvistes, estuvites, for estuviste—evidently a formation by analogy from the 2nd pers. of the other tenses, which all have s. It is with the Andalusian dialect that we can most readily associate the varieties of Castilian which are spoken in South America. Here some of the most characteristic features of the language of the extreme south of Spain are reproduced—either because the Castilian of America has spontaneously passed through the same phonetic transformations or because the Andalusian element, very strongly represented in colonization, succeeded in transporting its local habits of speech to the New World. Leonese.—Proceeding on inadequate indications, the existence of a Leonese dialect has been imprudently admitted in some quarters; but the old kingdom of Leon cannot in any way be considered as constituting a linguistic domain with an individuality of its own. The fact that a poem of the 13th century (the Alexandro), and certain redactions of the oldest Spanish code, the Fuero Juzgo, have a Leonese origin has been made too much of, and has led to a tendency to localize excessively certain features common to the whole western zone where the transition takes place from Castilian to Galician-Portuguese. 3. PORTUGUESE.—Portuguese-Galician constitutes the second branch of the Latin of Spain. In it we must distinguish—(z) Portuguese (Portuguez, perhaps a contraction from the old Partugalez = Portugalensis), the language of the kingdom of Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America (Brazil); (2) Galician (Gallego), or the language of the old kingdom of xxv. 19 Vowels.—Lat. e, o with the accent have not been diphthongized into ie, uo, ue: pe (p e d e m), dez (d e c e m), bom (b o n u s), pode (p o t e t). On the other hand, Portuguese has a large number of strong diphthongs produced by the attraction of an i in hiatus or the resolution of an explosive into i: raiba (r a b i a), feira (f e r i a), feito (f a c t u m), seixo (sax u m), oito (o c t o). A quite peculiar feature of the language occurs in the " nasal vowels," which are formed by the Latin accented vowels followed by m, n, or nt, nd: be (b e n e), gra (g r a n d e m), bo (b o n u m). These nasal vowels enter into combination with a final atonic vowel : irmao (g e r m a-n u s) ; also amao (a man t), sermmo ( s e r m o n e m), where the o is a degenerated representative of the Latin final vowel. In Old Portuguese the nasal vowel or diphthong was not as now marked by the til (_), but was expressed indifferently and without regard to the etymology by in or n: bem (b e n e), tan (t a n t u m), disserom (d i x e r u n t), sermom ( s e r m o n e m). The Latin diphthong an is rendered in Portuguese by ou (ouro, a u r u m; pouco, p a u c u m), also pronounced oi. With regard to the atonic vowels, there is a tendency to reduce a into a vowel resembling the Fr. e " muet," to pronounce o as u, and to drop e after a group of consonants (dent for dente). Consonants.—Here the most remarkable feature, and that which most distinctly marks the wear and ~~aar through which the language has passed, is the disappearance of the median consonants l and n: coreia (corona), lua (1 u n a), per formerly poer (p o n e r e), cone go (canonicus), vir (venire), dOr, formerly door (dolorem), paco (p a l a t in m), laude (s a l u t e m), pego (p e l a g u s). Lat. b passes regularly into v : cavallo ( c a b a l I u s), fava (f a b a), arvore (a r b o r e m) ; but, on the other hand, Lat. initial v readily tends to become b : bexiga (v e s i c a), bodo (v o turn). Lat. initial f never becomes h: fazer (facer e), file (f i 1 u m). Lat. c before e and i is represented either by the hard sibilant s or by the soft z. Lat. g between vowels is dropped before e and i: ley f or leer (le-g ere), dedv ( d i g i t u m) ; the same is the case with d, of course, in similar circumstances: remir (r e d i m e r e), rir (r i d e r e). Lat. j has assumed the sound of the French j. The Latin combinations cl, fl, pl at the beginning of words are transformed in two ways in words of popular origin. Either the initial consonant is retained while the 1 is changed into r: cravo (c 1 a v u m), grazer (placer e), fror (f 1 o r e m) ; or the group is changed in ch (= Fr. ch, Catal. x) through the intermediate sounds k j , f j , p j : chamar (c 1 a m a r e), chao (p 1 a n u s), chamma (f 1 a m m a). Within the word the same group and other groups also in which the second consonant is an l produce l mouillee (written lh, just as n mouillee is written nh, as in Provencal) : ovelha (o v i c' I a), velho (*v e c 1 u s) ; and sometimes ch: fecho (f a c' 1 u m), ancho (amp 1 u m). Lat. ss or sc before e and i gives x (Fr. ch) : baixo ( b a s s u s), faxa (f a s c i a). The group ct is.reduced to it: leito ( l e e t u m), peito ( p e e t u s), noite (n o c-t em); sometimes to ut: douto (d o c t u s). Such words as frulo, reto, dileto are modern derivatives from the learned forms fructo. IT recto, dilecto. Lat. cs becomes is: seis (sex); or isc, x (=Fr. tick, ch) : seixo (sax u m), luxo (1 u x u m) ; or even ss: disse (d i x i). Inflexion.—The Portuguese article, now reduced to the vocalic form o, a, os, as, was to (exceptionally also el, which still survives in the expression El-Rei), la, los, las in the old language. Words ending in 1 in the singular lose the 1 in the plural (because it then becomes median, and so is dropped) : sol (s o 1 e m), but sues (s o 1 e s) ; those having do in the sing. form the plural either in des or in lies according to the etymology: thus cao (c a n e m) makes dies, but racao makes racoes. As regards the pronoun, mention must be made of the non-etymological forms of the personal mim and of the feminine possessive minha, where the second n has been brought in by the initial nasal. Portuguese conjugation has more that is interesting. In the personal suffixes the forms of the 2nd pers. pl. in ades, edes, ides lost the d in the 15th century, and have now become ais, eis, is, through the intermediate forms aes, ees, eis. The form in des has persisted only in those verbs where it was protected by the consonants n or r preceding it: ponder, tendes, vindes, amardes, and also no doubt in some forms of the present of the imperative, where the theme has been reduced to an extraordinary degree by the disappearance of a consonant and the contraction of vowels: ides, credes, ledes, &c. Portuguese is the only Romance language which possesses a personal or conjugated infinitive: amar, amar-es, amar, amar-mos, amar-des, amar-em; e.g. antes de sair-mos, " before we go out." Again, Portuguese alone has preserved' the pluperfect in its original meaning, so that, for example, amara (a m a v e r a m) signifies not merely as elsewhere " I would love," but also " I had loved." The future perfect, retained as in Castilian, has lost its vowel of inflexion in the 1st and 3rd pers. sing. and consequently becomes liable to be confounded with the infinitive (amar; render, partir). Portuguese, though less frequently than Castilian, employs ter (t e n e r e) as an auxiliary, alongside of aver; and it also supplements the use of e s s e r e with seder e, which furnished the subj. seja, the imperative se, sede, the gerundive sendo, the participle sido, and some other tenses in the old language. Among the peculiarities of Portuguese conjugation may be mentioned-(1) the assimilation of the 3rd pers. sing. to the 1st in strong perfects (houve, pude, quiz, fez), while Castilian has hube and hubo; (2) the imperfects punka, tenha, vinha (from por, ter and vir), which are accented on the radical in order to avoid the loss of the n (ponia would have made poia), and which substitute u and i for o and e in order to distinguish from the present subjunctive (ponha, tenha, venha). Galician.—Almost all the phonetic features which distinguish Portuguese from Castilian are possessed by Gallego also. Portuguese and Galician even now are practically one language, and still more was this the case formerly: the identity of the two idioms would become still more obvious if the orthography employed by the Galicians were more strictly phonetic, and if certain transcriptions of sounds borrowed from the grammar of the official language (Castilian) did not veil the true pronunciation of the dialect. It is stated, for example, that Gallego does not possess nasal diphthongs; still it may be conceded once for all that such a word as p 1 a n u s, which in Galician is written sometimes chau and sometimes than, cannot be very remote from the Portuguese nasal pronunciation chao. One of the most notable differences between normal Portuguese and Galician is the substitution of the surd spirant in place of the sonant spirant for the Lat. j before all vowels and before e and i: xuez ( j u d i c e m), Port, juiz; xunto (j is n c t u m), Port. junto; xente (g e n t e m). Port. genie. In conjugation the peculiarities of Gallego are more marked; some find their explanation within the dialect itself, others seem to be due to Castilian influence. The 2nd persons plural have still their old form ades, edes, ides, so that in this instance it would seem as if Gallego had been arrested in its progress while Portuguese had gone on progressing; but it is to be observed that with these full forms the grammarians admit contracted forms as well: as (Port. ais), es (Port. eis), is (Port. is). The 1st pers. sing. of the perfect of conjugations in er and it has come to be complicated by a nasal resonance similar to that which we find in the Portuguese mim; we have vendin, partin, instead of vendi, parti, and by analogy this form in in has extended itself also to the perfect of the donjugation in ar, and faun, gardin, for falei, gardei are found. The second persons of the same tense take the ending che, ches in the singular and chedes in the plural: falache or falaches (f a b u 1 a s t i), falachedes as well as falastedes ( f a b u 1 a s t i s), bateche or batiche, pl. batestes or batechedes, &c. Ti (t i b i) having given cite in Galician, we see that falasti has become falache by a phonetic process. The 3rd pers. sing. of strong perfect is not in e as in Portuguese (houve, pode), but in o (houbo, puido, soubo, coubo, &c.) ; Castilian influence may he traceable here. If a contemporary grammarian, Saco Arce, is to be trusted, Gallego would form an absolute exception to the law of Spanish accentuation in the imperfect and pluperfect indicative: falabamos, falabddes; batiamos, batiddes; pidiamos, pididdes; and falaramos, falarades; bateramos, baterades; pidiramos, pidirfides. The future perfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive, on the other hand, would seem to be accented regularly: falaremos, faldsemos. The important question is worth further study in detail. Sprachen (Leipzig, 1890–1894) ; G. Korting, Lateinisch-romanisches Worterbuch (Paderborn, 1890–1891). See also A. Carnoy, Le Latin d'Espagne d'apres les inscriptions (2nd ed., Brussels, 1906). (1) CATALAN.—A. Morel-Fatio, " Das Catalanische," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie (1888) ; E. Vogel, " Neucatalanische Studien," in G. Korting's Neuphilologische Studien (Heft 5, 1886) ; M. Miles y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en Espana (Barcelona, 1861), and Estudios de lengua catalana (Barcelona, 1875); A. Mussafia's introduction to Die catalanische metrische Version der sieben weisen Meister (Vienna, 1876); A. Nonell y Mas, Analisis de la llenga catalana antiga comparada ab la moderna (Manresa, 1895) ; J. P. Ballot y Torres, Gramatica y apologia de la llengua cathalana (Barcelona, 1815); A. de Bofarull, Estudios, sistema gramaticaly crestomatia de la lengua catalana (Barcelona, 1864) ; P. Fabra, Contribucio a la gramatica de la llengua catalana (Barcelona, 1898). For the Catalan dialect of Sardinia see G. Morosi, " 1'Odierno dialetto catalano di Alghero in Sardegna," in the Miscellanea di filelogia dedicata alla memoria dei Prof. Caix e Canello (Florence, 1885), and F. Romoni, Sardismi (Sassari, 1887). (2) CASTILIAN.—Conde de la Vinaza, Biblioteca historica de la filologia castellana (Madrid, 1893) ; A. Bello, Gramatica de la lengua castellana (7th ed., with notes by R. J. Cuervo, Paris, 1902); R. J. Cuervo, Apuntaciones ritica ssobre el lenguaje bogotano (5th ed., Paris, 1907) ; G. Baist, " Die spanische Sprache," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie; P. Forster, Spaniscl.:e Sprachlehre (Berlin, 188o) ; E. Gorra, Lingua e letteratura spagnuola delle origini (Milan, 1898); R. Menendez Pidal, Manual elemental de gramatica historica espanola (Madrid, 1905) ; F. M. Josselyn, Etudes de phonetique espagnole (Paris, 1907) ; C. Michaelis, Studien zur romanischen Wortschopfung (Leipzig, 1876); A. Keller, Historische Formenlelire der spanischen Sprache (Murrhardt, 1894) ; P. de Mugica, Gramdtica del castellano antiguo (Berlin, 1891) ; S. Padilla, Gramatica historica de la lengua castellana (Madrid, 1903) ; J. D. M. Ford, " The Old Spanish Sibilants " in Studies and Notes in Philology (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1900). For Asturian, see A. de Rato y Hestia, Vocabulario de las palabras y frases que se hablan en Asturias (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccidn de poesias en dialectpasturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarrese-Aragonese, see J. Borao, Diccionario de votes aragonesas (2nd ed., Saragossa, 1885) ; for Andalusian, the searching study of H. Schuchardt in the Zeitschrift fur romanische Philologie, vol. v.; and for Leonese, R. Menendez Pidal, " El Dialecto leones,'' in the Revista de archivos, bibliotecas, y museos (Madrid, 1906). R. J. Cuervo's Apuntaciones (noted above) is the leading authority on American Spanish. The following publications may be consulted, but with caution: L. Abeille, Idioma national de los Argentinos (Paris, 1900) ; D. Granada, Vocabulario rioplatense razonado (Montevideo, 1890) ; J. Fernandez Ferraz, Nahuatlismos de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1892) and C. Gagini, Diccionario de barbarismos de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1893) ; A. Membreno, Ilondurenismos (Tegucigalpa, 1897). See also C. C. Marden, The Phonology of the Spanish Dialect of Mexico City (Baltimore, 1896) ; J. Sanchez Somoano, Modismos, locuciones y terminos mexicanos (Madrid, 1892), and F. Ramos i Duarte, Diccionario de niejicanismos (Mexico, 1895); J. de Arona, Diccionario de peruanismos (Lima, 1883) ; J. Calcano, El Castellano en Venezuela (Caracas, 1897). (3) PORTUGUESE.—J. Cornu, " Die portugiesische Sprache," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie; F. A. Coelho, Theoria da conjugagao em latim e portuguez (Lisbon, 1871), and Quest000es da lingua portugueza (Oporto, 1874). For Galician, see A. Fernandez y Morales's Ensayos poeticos de berceiano (Leon, 1861); M. R. Rodriguez, Apuntes gramaiicales sobre el romance gallego de la cronica troyana (La Coruna, 1898), and Saco Arce, Gramatica gallega (Lugo, 1868) ; for other dialectical varieties, see I. J. da Fonseca, Nocoes de philologia accomodadas a lingoa brasiliana (Rio de Janeiro, 1885); J. Leite de Vasconellos, Dialectos beires (Oporto, 1884), and Sur le diatecte portugais de Macao (Lisbon, 1892). Important articles by many of the above writers, and by other philologists of note, will be found in Romania, the Zeitschrift fur romanische Philologie, the Revue des langues romanes, the Revista lusitana, the Revue hispanique, the Bulletin hispanique, Cultures espanola and the Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen. (A.. M.-FA.; J. F.-K.)

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.