See also:Church to indicate Christendom as a whole, in contrast with individual churches . With this idea went the notions that
See also:Christianity had been diffused throughout the whole
See also:earth by the apostles, and that only what was found everywhere throughout the church could be true . The
See also:term thus in
See also:time became full of dogmatic and
See also:political meaning, connoting, when applied to the church, a universal authoritative and orthodox society, as opposed to Gnostic and other " sects " (cf. the famous
See also:canon of Vincent of Lerins A.D . 434; quod ubique, quod
See also:semper, quod ab
See also:credit um est) . The term " Catholic " does not occur in the old
See also:symbol; but
See also:Professor Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in
See also:common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East . In the
See also:form of the Nicene creed itself it does not occur; but in the creed of Jerusalem (348), an amplification of the Nicene symbol, we find " one
See also:Holy Catholic Church," and in the revision by Cyril of Alexandria (362) " Catholic and Apostolic Church " (see CREEDS) . Thus, though the word " Catholic " was
See also:late in finding its way into the formal symbols of the church, it is clear that it had long been in use in the original sense defined above . It must be
See also:borne in mind, however, that the designation Catholic" was equally claimed by all the warring parties within the church at various times; thus, the followers of
See also:Arius and
See also:Athanasius alike called themselves Catholics, and it was only the ultimate victory of the latter that has reserved for them in
See also:history the name of Catholic, and branded the former as Arian . With the gradual development and stereotyping of the creed it was inevitable that the term " Catholic " should come to imply a more narrowly defined orthodoxy . In the Eastern churches, indeed, the conception of the church as the
See also:guardian of " the faith once delivered to the
See also:saints " soon overshadowed that of
See also:interpretation and development by catholic consent, and, though they have throughout claimed the title of Catholic, their chief
See also:glory is that conveyed in the name of the Holy Orthodox Church . In the West, meanwhile, the growth of the power of the papacy had tended more and more to the interpretation of the word " catholic " as implying communion with, and obedience to, the see of Rome (see PAPACY); the churches of the East, no less than the heretical sects of the West, by repudiating this
See also:allegiance, had ceased to be Catholic . This
See also:identification of " Catholic " with " Roman " was accentuated by the progress of the Reformation .
The Reformers themselves, indeed, like other dissidents and reformers before them, did not necessarily repudiate the name of Catholic; they believed, in fact, in catholicism, i.e. the universalsanction of their beliefs, as firmly as did the adherents of " the old religion "; they included the Catholic creeds,
See also:definitions formulated by the universal church, in their service books; they too appealed, as the fathers of
See also:Basel and
See also:Constance had done, from the papal
See also:monarchy to the
See also:great ecclesiastical republic . The Church of England at least, emphasizing her own essential catholicity, retained in her
See also:translations of the
See also:ancient symbols the word" catholic " instead of replacing it by " universal." But the
See also:appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term "
See also:Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all . " Catholic " and " Catholicism " thus again changed and narrowed their meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with " Romanist " and the creed and obedience of Rome . Even in England, where the church retained most strongly the Catholic tradition, this distinction of " Protestant" and "Catholic" was clearly maintained, at least till the Catholic revival "in the Church of England of the 19th century . On the continent of
See also:Europe the
See also:equivalent words (e.g . Ger . Katholik, Katholizismus; Fr. catholique, catholicisme) are even more definitely associated with Rome; they have lost the sense which they still convey to a considerable school of Anglicans . The dissident " Catholic " churches are forced to qualify their titles: they are " Old Catholics " (Alt-Katholiken) or " German Catholics (Deutsch-Katholiken) . The Church of Rome alone, officially and in popular parlance, is " the Catholic Church " (katholische Kirche, eglise catholique), a title which she proudly claims as exclusively her own, by divine right, by the sanction of immemorial tradition, and by reason of her perpetual protest against the idea of "
See also:national " churches, consecrated by the Reformation (see CHURCH HISTORY, and ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH) . ' The additional qualification of " Roman she tolerates, since it proclaims her
See also:doctrine of the see of Rome as the
See also:keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic Church," and her members are "Catholics." Yet to concede this claim and surrender without qualification the word " Catholic " to a
See also:connotation which is at best only universal in theory, is to beg several very weighty questions . The doctrine of the Catholic Church, i.e. the essential unity and interdependence of " all
See also:God's faithful
See also:people scattered through-out the
See also:world," is common to all sections of Christians . The creed is one; it is the interpretation that differs .
In a somewhat narrower sense, too, the Church of England at least has never repudiated the conception of the Catholic Church as a divinely instituted organization for the safe-guarding andproclamation of the Christian
See also:revelation . She deliberately retained the Catholic creeds, the Catholic
See also:ministry and the appeal to Catholic antiquity (see ENGLAND, CHURCH or) . A large section of her members, accordingly, laying stress on this side of her tradition, prefer to
See also:call themselves " Catholics." But, though the invention of the terms " Roman Catholic " and " Roman Catholicism " early implied the retention by the
See also:English Church of her Catholic claim, her members were never, after the Reformation, called Catholics; even the Caroline divines of the 17th century; for all their " popish practices," styled themselves Protestants, though they would have professed their adherence to the Catholic faith " and their belief in " the Holy Catholic Church." Clearly, then, the exact meaning of the term varies according to those who use it and those to whom it is applied . To the Romanist " Catholic " means " Roman Catholic "; to the high
See also:Anglican it means whatever is common to the three " historic branches into which he conceives the church to be divided—Roman, Anglican and Orthodox; to the Protestant pure and
See also:simple it means either what it does to the Romanist, or, in expansive moments, simply what is " universal " to all Christians . In a yet broader sense it is used adjectivally of mere wideness or universality of view, as when we speak of a man as " of catholic sympathies " or " catholic in his tastes." The name of Catholic Epistles is given to those letters (two of
See also:Peter, three of
See also:John, one of
See also:James, one of
See also:Jude) incorporated in the New Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul, addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and more indefinite circle of readers . (See BIBLE: New Testament, Canon.) The title of Catholicus (ccaOoXtebs) seems to have been used under the Roman
See also:empire, though rarely, as the Greek equivalent ofconsularis and praefectus . Thus
See also:Eusebius (Inst. ecel. viii . 23) speaks of the catholicus of Africa (xaBoXacov Tns 'A4pu ei s) . As an ecclesiastical title it was used to imply, not universal (ecumenical), but a great and widespread jurisdiction . Thus the
See also:bishop of the important see ofSeleucia (
See also:Bagdad), though subordinate to the
See also:patriarch of
See also:Antioch, had the title of Catholicus and power to consecrate even archbishops; and on the division of the see there were two Catholici under the patriarch of Antioch . In Ethiopia, too, there were Catholici with less extensive
See also:powers, subject to the patriarch of Alexandria . The title now survives, however, only as that of the
See also:head of the Armenian Church (q.v.) .
See also:cathedral church is, how-ever, in Greek the Catholicon . An isolated use of the word " catholic " as a secular legal term survives in Scots
See also:law; a catholic creditor is one whose
See also:debt is secured over several or over all of the subjects belonging to the debtor .
CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH
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