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GEORGE CATLIN (1796-1872)

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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 535 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GEORGE CATLIN (1796-1872), American ethnologist, was born at. Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1796. He was educated as a lawyer and practised in Philadelphia for two years; but art was his favourite pursuit, and forsaking the law he established himself at New York as a portrait painter. In 1832, realizing that the American Indians were dying out, he resolved to rescue their types and customs from oblivion. With this object he spent many years among the Indians in North and South America. He lived with them, acquired their languages, and studied very thoroughly their habits, customs and mode of life, making copious notes and many studies for paintings. In 1840 he came to Europe with his collection of paintings, most of which are now in the National Museum, Washington, as the Catlin Gallery; and in the following year he published the Manners, Customs and Condition of the North American Indians in two volumes, illustrated with 300 engravings. This was followed in 1844 by The North American Portfolio, containing 25 plates of hunting scenes and amusements in the Rocky Mountains and the prairies of America, and in 1848 by Eight Years' Travels and Residence in Europe. In 1861 he published a curious little volume, in " manugraph," entitled The Breath of Life, on the advantage of keeping one's mouth habitually closed, especially during sleep; and in 1868, Last Rambles amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes. He died in Jersey City, New Jersey, on the 22nd of December 1872. enemy of the oligarchy, or as a disinterested champion of the provincials. It is held by some historians that there was at the time on the part of many of the Roman nobles a determination to raise themselves to power, despite the opposition of the senate; others with greater probability maintain that Catiline's object was simply the cancelling of the huge debts which he and his friends had accumulated. Catiline, by his bravery, his military talents, his vigorous resolution, and his wonderful power over men, was eminently qualified as a revolutionary leader. He is the subject of tragedies by Ben Jonson and P. Crebillon, and of the Rome sauvee of Voltaire. See P. Merimee, Etudes sur la guerre sociale et la conjuration de Catiline (1844); E. Hagen, Catilina (1854), with introductory discussion of the authorities; E. S. Beesley, " Catiline as a Party Leader " (Fortnightly Review, June 1865), in defence of Catiline; C. John, Die Entstehungsgeschichte der catilinarischenVerschworung (1876), a critical examination of Sallust's account; E. von Stern, Catilina and die Parteikdmpfe in Rom 66-63 (1883), with bibliography in preface; C. Thiaucourt, Etude sur la conjuration de Catiline (1887), a critical examination of Sallust's account and of his object in writing it; J. E. Blondel, Histoire iconomique de la conjuration de Catiline (1893), written from the point of view of a political economist; Gaston Boissier, La Conjuration de Catiline (1905), and Cicero and his Friends (Eng. trans.) ; Tyrrell and Purser's ed. of Cicero's Letters (index vol. s.v. " Sergius Catilina ") ; J. L. Strachan Davidson, Cicero 1894), ch. V.; Warde Fowler's Caesar (1892) ; see also art.
End of Article: GEORGE CATLIN (1796-1872)

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