See also:term for the cows and oxen of agricultural use . For the zoological account, see
See also:BOVIDAE, and the subordinate articles there referred to; for details concerning
See also:dairy-farming, see DAIRY . Oxen appear to have been among the earliest of domesticated animals, as they undoubtedly were among the most important agents in the growth of early
See also:civilization . They are mentioned in the
See also:oldest written records of the
See also:Hebrew and
See also:Hindu peoples, and are figured on
See also:Egyptian monuments raised over 3000 years B.c.; while remains of domesticated specimens have been found in Swiss lake-dwellings along with the
See also:stone implements and other
See also:relics of Neolithic man . In
See also:infant communities a man's
See also:wealth was measured by the number and
See also:size of his herds—Abraham, it is said, was
See also:rich in cattle—and oxen for a long
See also:period formed, as they still do among many savage or semi-savage tribes, the favourite
See also:medium of
See also:exchange between individuals and communities . After the introduction of a
See also:metal coinage into
See also:Greece, this method of exchange was commemorated by stamping the image of an ox on the new
See also:money; while the connexion between
See also:cattle and
See also:coin as symbols of wealth has
See also:left its mark on the
See also:languages of
See also:Europe, as is seen in the Latin word
See also:petunia and the
See also:English " pecuniary," derived from pecus, cattle . The value attached to cattle in ancient times is further shown by the Bull figuring among the signs of the zodiac; in its worship by the ancient Egyptians under the title of
See also:Apis; in the veneration which has always been paid to it by the
See also:Hindus, according to whose sacred legends it was the first animal created by the three divinities directed by the supreme Deity to furnish the
See also:earth with animated beings; and in the important
See also:part it played in Greek and
See also:mythology . The Hindus were not allowed to
See also:shed the
See also:blood of the ox, and the Egyptians could only do so in sacrificing to their gods . Both Hindus and Jews were for-bidden to muzzle it when treading out the corn; to destroy it wantonly was a
See also:crime among the Romans, punishable with
See also:exile . Breeds.—There exist in Britain four interesting remnants of what were at one
See also:time numerous enclosed herds of ancient
See also:forest cattle,' with black or red points, in parks at Chillingham, Cadzow, Vaynol (near
See also:Wales) and Chartley . A few of the last have been removed to
See also:Woburn . Other representatives of old stock are—a resuscitated
See also:white Welsh breed with black points, derived from white specimens
See also:born of black Welsh cows; several herds of a white polled breed with black points; a
See also:herd of the ancient Polled
See also:Suffolk Dun, an excellent milking breed; a White Belted Galloway and a White Belted Welsh breed; the old
See also:Gloucester breed at
See also:Badminton, with a white rump, tail and underline, related to the now
See also:extinct Glamorgan breed; the
See also:Shetland breed; and a few herds of Dutch cattle preserved for their
See also:superior milking
See also:powers.- The prominent breeds of cattle in the
See also:British Isles 2 comprise the Shorthorn,
See also:Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn,
See also:Devon, South Devon,
See also:Sussex, Welsh, Longhorn, Red Polled,
See also:Angus, Galloway, West Highland,
See also:Ayrshire, Jersey,
See also:Kerry and Dexter .
The Shorthorn, Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, Hereford, Devon, South Devon, Sussex, Longhorn and Red Polled breeds are native to .England; the Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Highland ' Rev . J . Storer, The
See also:Wild White Cattle of
See also:Great Britain (1879) . ' See
See also:Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (19o7), Low's Breeds of the Domestic Animals of the British Isles (1842, illustrated, and 1845), and E . V . Wilcox's Farm Animals (19o7), an
See also:work.and Ayrshire breeds to Scotland; and the Kerry and Dexter breeds to
See also:Ireland . The Jersey and Guernsey breeds—often spoken of as Channel Islands cattle—belong to the respective islands whose names they bear, and great care is taken to keep them isolated from each other . The term
See also:Alderney is obsolete, the cattle of Alderney being mainly a type of the Guernsey breed . Among breeds well known in the
See also:United States 2 and not mentioned above, the more important are the Holsteins, large black and white cattle highly valued for their abundant milk production, and the Dutch Belted breed, black with a broad white
See also:round the
See also:body, also
See also:good milkers . The Shorthorn 3 is the most widely distributed of all the breeds of cattle both at home and abroad . No
See also:census of breeds has ever been taken in the United
See also:Kingdom, but such an enumeration would show the Shorthorn far to exceed in numbers any other breed, whilst the great majority of
See also:cross-bred cattle contain Shorthorn blood . During the last quarter of the 18th century the
See also:Charles Coiling (1751–1836) and Robert
See also:Colling (1749–1820), by careful selection and breeding, improved the cattle of the Teeswater
See also:district in the
See also:county of Durham .
If the Shorthorn did not originate thus, it is indisputable that the efforts of the Collings 4 had a profoundinfluence upon the fortunes of the breed . It is still termed the Durham breed in most parts of the
See also:world except the
See also:land of its
See also:birth, and the
See also:geographical name is far preferable, for the term " shorthorn " is applicable to a number of other breeds . Other skilled breeders turned their
See also:attention to the Shorthorns and established famous strains, the descendants of which can still be traced . By
See also:Booth, of Killerby and Warlaby in
See also:Yorkshire (1777), the " Booth ". strains of Shorthorns were originated; by Thomas
See also:Bates, of Kirklevington in Yorkshire, the " Bates " families 5 (1800) . The Shorthorn is sometimes spoken of as the ubiquitous breed, its striking characteristic being the ease with which it adapts itself to varying conditions of
See also:climate and management . It is also called the " red, white and roan." The roan
See also:colour is very popular, and dark red has its supporters, as in the case of the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorns; white is not in favour, especially abroad . The Shorthorn breed is more noted for its
See also:beef-making than for its milk-yielding properties, although the non-
See also:pedigree milking Shorthorn of the north of England is an excellent cow with dual-purpose qualifications of the first
See also:order . An effort is being made to restore milking qualities to certain strains of pedigree blood . The culmination of what may be termed the Booth and Bates period was in the
See also:year 1875, when the sales took place of
See also:Dunmore's and
See also:William Torr's herds, which realized extraordinary prices . In that black year of farming, 1879, prices were declining, and they continued to do so till within the last few years of the close of the 19th century, when there' set in a gradual revival, stimulated largely by the commercial prosperity of the
See also:country . The result of extremely high prices when
See also:line-bred animals were in fashion was a tendency to breed from all kinds of animals that were of the same tribe, without selection . A deterioration set in, which was aggravated by the overlooking of the milking properties .
Shorthorn breeders came to see that
See also:change of blood was necessary . Meanwhile, for many years breeders in
See also:Aberdeenshire had been holding
See also:annual sales of
See also:young bulls and heifers from their herds . The
See also:late Amos Cruickshank began his annual sales in the 'forties, and the late W . T . Talbot-Crosbie had annual sales from his Shorthorn herd in the south-west of Ireland for a number of years . Many Aberdeen farmers emigrated to
See also:Canada, and bought Shorthorn calves in their native county to take with them . The Cruickshanks held their bull sales at that time, and many of their animals were bought by the small breeders in Canada . This continued until 1875, when the Cruickshanks had so much private demand that they discontinued their public sales . Subsequently, when Cruickshank sold his herd privately 5 Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1822) . Sec . E . J .
See also:Powell, 12 Hanover Square,
See also:London, W . ' C . J . Bates, " The Brothers Colling," Jour .
See also:Roy . Agric .
See also:Soc . (1899) . 5 C . J . Bates, Thomas Bates and the Kiiklevington Shorthorns: a Contribution to the
See also:History of Pure Durham Cattle (Newcastle-upon-
See also:Tyne, 1897) . to
See also:James Nelson & Sons for exportation, the animals could not all be shipped, and W .
Duthie, of Collynie; Aberdeenshire, bought some of the older cows, whilst J .Deane Willis, of Baptdn Monar, Wilts, bought the yearling heifers . Duthie thereupon resumed the sales that the Cruickshanks had relinquished, his averages being L30 in 1892, about £50 in 1893-1894, and £8o in 1895 . These prices advanced through English breeders requiring a little change of blood, and also through the increasing tendency to exhibit animals of great substance, or rather to feed animals for show . The success of this
See also:movement strengthened the demand, whilst an inquiry for his line of blood arose in the United States and Canada . A faithful contemporary history of the Shorthorn breed is to be found in
See also:Thornton's Circular, published quarterly since 1868; see also J . Sinclair, History of Shorthorn Cattle (1907); R .
See also:Bruce, Fifty Years among Shorthorns (1907) ; A . H . Sanders, Shorthorn Cattle (Chicago, 1901) . The Lincolnshire Red Shorthorns are the best dual-purpose cattle—for milk and
See also:meat-that possess a pedigree record, in the United Kingdom, and their
See also:cherry red colour has brought them into high favour in tropical countries for
See also:crossing with the native breeds . The Hereford breed is maintained chiefly in
See also:Herefordshire and the adjoining counties .
Whilst a full red is the general colour of the body, the Herefords are distinguished by their white
See also:face, white chest and
See also:abdomen, and white mane . The legs up to the
See also:knee or hock are also often white . As a
See also:protection against the
See also:sun in a hot climate dark spots on the eyelids or round the orbits are valuable . The horns are moderately long . Herefords, though they
See also:rear their own calves, have acquired but little fame as dairy cattle . They are very
See also:hardy, and produce beef of excellent quality . Being docile, they fatten easily and readily, and as graziers' beasts they are in high favour . When the Bates' Shorthorn bubble burst in
See also:America about 1877, the Hereford gradually replaced the Shorthorn of the western ranches, and it is now the most numerous
See also:ranch animal in the United States and Canada . The bulls
See also:beat the bulls of all other breeds in " rustling " capacity . In America the ranch-bred Herefords have got too small in the
See also:bone in
See also:recent years, and Shorthorns, chiefly of the Scottish type, are being introduced to increase their size by crossing . In the " feed lot " a well-bred Hereford
See also:steer feeds more quickly than either a Shorthorn or an Aberdeen-Angus . In
See also:Queensland, Hereford cattle bred from the " Lord
See also:Wilton "
See also:strain by Robert
See also:Christison of Lammermoor have for years been triumphant as beef-producers in competition with the Shorthorn .
When these are quartered in theordinary butchers' fashion, the
See also:hind-quarters outweigh the fore-quarters, which is a reversal of the prevailing
See also:rule . North Devons.—The" Rubies of the West," as they are termed from their
See also:hue, are reared chiefly in Devon and
See also:Somerset . The colour is a whole red, its
See also:depth or richness varying with the individual, and in summer becoming mottled with darker spots . The Devons stand somewhat low; they are neat and compact, and possess admirable symmetry . Although a smaller breed than the Shorthorn or the Hereford, they weigh better than either . The horns of the
See also:female are somewhat slender, and often
See also:curve neatly upwards . Being
See also:fine-limbed, active animals, they are well adapted for grazing the poor pastures of their native hills, and they turn their
See also:food to the best account, yielding excellent beef . They have not yet attained much celebrity as milch kine, for, though their milk is of first-class quality, with a few notable exceptions, its quantity is small . Latterly, however, the milking qualities have received more attention from breeders, whose
See also:object is to qualify the Devon as a dual-purpose breed . The South Devon or South Hams cattle are almost restricted to that
See also:southern part of the county of Devon known as the Hams, whence they are also called " Hammers." With a somewhat ungainly
See also:head, lemon-yellow hair, yellow skin, and large but hardly handsome udder, the South Devon breed more resembles the Guernsey, with which it is supposed to be connected, than the
See also:trim-built cattle of the hills of North Devon . The cows are large, heavy milkers, and produce excellent
See also:butter . Theyare rarely seen outside their locality except when they appear in the showyards .
The Sussex breed resembles the North Devon in many respects, but it is bigger, less refined inappearance, less graceful in outline, and of a deeper
See also:chestnut colour than the" dainty Devon," as the latter may well be called when compared with them . As a hardy
See also:race, capable of thriving on poor rough pastures, the Sussex are highly valued in their native districts, where they were rapidly improved before the end of the 19th century . They are essentially a beef-producing breed, the cows having little reputation as milkers . By
See also:stall-feeding they can be ripened for the
See also:butcher at an early age . Sussex cattle are said to " die well," that is, to yield a large proportion of meat in the best parts of the carcase . In the Welsh breed of cattle black is the prevailing colour, and the horns are fairly long . They do not mature very rapidly, but some of them grow eventually into great ponderous beasts, and their beef is of
See also:prime quality . The cows often possess considerable reputation as milkers . As graziers' beasts Welsh cattle are well known in the midland counties of England, where, under the name of Welsh runts," large herds of bullocks are fattened on the pastures or "topped up" in the yards in winter . All the remaining strains of Welsh cattle were recognized as one breed in 19o4, when the Welsh Black Cattle Society united into one
See also:register the Herd Books of North and South Wales . The Longhorn or." Dishley " breed of cattle is one of the most interesting historically . It was with Longhorns that Robert Bakewell, of Dishley,
See also:Leicestershire (1726-1795), showed his remarkable skill as an improver of cattle in the
See also:middle of the 18th century.1 At one period Longhorns spread widely over England and Ireland, but, as the Shorthorns extended their domain, the Longhorns made way for them .
They are big, rather clumsy animals, with long drooping horns, which are very objectionable in these days of cattle transport by
See also:rail and
See also:sea . They are slow in coming to maturity, but are very hardy . The bullocks feed up to heavy weights, and the cows are
See also:fair milkers . No
See also:lover of cattle can view these
See also:quaint creatures without a feeling of satisfaction that the efforts made to resuscitate a breed which has many useful qualities to commend it have been successful, and that the extinction which threatened it in. the 'eighties of last century is no longer imminent . In 1907 there were twenty-two Longhorn herds containing about four
See also:hundred registered cattle located mainly in the English midlands and Man . The Red
See also:Poll breed, though old, has only come into prominence within recent years . They were known as the East Anglian Polls, and later as the Norfolk and Suffolk Polled cattle, being confined chiefly to these two counties . They are symmetrically built, of medium size, and of uniformly red colour . They have a tuft of hair on the poll . As dairy cattle, they are noted for the length of the period during which they continue in milk . Not less are they valued as beef-producers, and, as they are hardy and docile, they fatten readily and mature fairly early . Hence, like the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, they may claim to be a dual-purpose breed .
As beef cattle they are always seen to
See also:advantage at the Norwich
See also:Christmas cattle show, held annually in
See also:November . The Aberdeen-Angus, a polled, black breed, the cows of which are often termed " Doddies," belongs to Aberdeenshire and adjacent parts of Scotland, but many herds are maintained in England and some in Ireland . The steers and heifers fed for the butcher attain great
See also:weight, make first-class show beasts, and yield beef of excellent quality . The cross between the
See also:horn and the Aberdeen-Angus is a favourite in the meat markets and at
See also:fat-stock competitions . The Galloways are named from the district,
See also:Kirkcudbright and Wigtonshire, in the south-west of Scotland,_ to which they are native . Like the Aberdeen-Angus cattle, they are hornless, and normally of a black colour . But, with a thicker hide and shaggy hair, suited to a wet climate, they have a coarser appearance than the Aberdeen-Angus, the product of a less humid region, though 1
See also:Housman, Robert Bakewell," Jour . Roy . Agric . Soc . (1894) . it approaches the latter in size .
Galloways yield superior beef, but mature less rapidly than the Aberdeen-Angus . They make admirable beasts for the grazier, and the cross between the Gallo-way and the white Shorthorn bull, known as a "Blue
See also:Grey," is much sought after by the grazier and the butcher . The West Highland or Kyloe breed are perhaps the most hardy and picturesque of British cattle . Their home is amidst the wild romantic scenery of the
See also:Highlands and the Western Isles of Scotland, though Highland bullocks with long, spreading curved horns may be seen in English parks . They have not made much progress towards early maturity, but their slowly ripened beef is of the choicest quality . The colour of their thick shaggy hair varies from white and
See also:light dun to tawny yellow of many shades, and black . The A yrshires are the dairy breed of Scotland, where they have considerably overstepped the limits of the humid western county whence they take their name . They are usually of a white and brown colour, the patches being well defined . The neat, shapely, upstanding horns are characteristic . The Ayrshires are under medium size and move gracefully, and the
See also:females display the
See also:wedge-shape typical of dairy cows . They are a hardy breed, and, even from poor pastures, give good yields of milk, especially useful for
See also:cheese-making purposes . The milking powers of the breed are being improved under a
See also:system of milk-testing and records supported by the Highland and Agricultural Society .
The Jerseys are graceful,
See also:deer-like cattle, whose home is in the
See also:island of Jersey, where, by means of stringent regulations against the importation of cattle, the breed has been kept pure for many generations . As its milk is especially rich in fat (so rich that it requires to be diluted with a little
See also:water before it can be safely fed to calves), the Jersey has attained a wide reputation as a butter-producing breed . It is a great favourite in England, where many pure-bred herds exist . The
See also:colours most preferred are " whole " fawns of many shades . The light
See also:silver-grey, which was in high repute in England in the early 'seventies of the 19th century, is out of favour . Browns and brindles are rarely seen . The grey zone surrounding the black muzzle gives the appearance designated " mealy-mouthed." The horns are short, and generally artificially curved inwards; the bones are fine . The best milch cows have a yellowish circle round the
See also:eye, and the skin at the extremity of the tail is of a deep yellow, almost orange colour . The cows are gentle and docile when reared in close contact with human beings, but the bulls, despite their small size, are often fierce . Guernsey cattle are native to the islands of Guernsey, Alderney,
See also:Sark and Herm . They are kept pure by importation restrictions . Herds of pure-bred Guernseys also exist in the Isle of
See also:Wight and in various counties of England and Scotland .
They have not the refined and elegant appearance of the Jerseys, which, however, they exceed in size . They are usually of a rich yellowish-brown colour, patched with white, in some cases their colour almost meriting the appellation of " orange and lemon." The yellow colour inside the ears is a point always looked for by
See also:judges . The cows, large-bellied and narrow in front, are truly wedge-shaped, the greatly
See also:developed udder adding to the expanse of the hinder part of the body . They yield an abundance of milk, rich in fat, and are excellent butter-producers . The horns are yellow at the
See also:base, curved, and not coarse . The
See also:nose is flesh-coloured and
See also:free from black markings . The
See also:Canadian breed, black with a narrow brown stripe down the back and a light
See also:ring round the muzzle, are descended from old
See also:Brittany cattle imported into Canada by French settlers three hundred years ago, and are in consequence related to the Channel Islands cattle . They are remarkably hardy and good milkers, and it is claimed they produce butter fat at 2 c. a lb less cost than any other breed . The Kerry is a breed of small black cattle belonging to the south-west of Ireland, whence they have spread into many parts, not only of their native land, but of England as well . Although they are able to subsist on the roughest and scantiest of fare, and are exceedingly hardy, the cows are, nevertheless, excellent milkers, and have acquired celebrity as a dairy breed . The541 colour is black, but the cows sometimes have a little white on the udder . The horns are white, with black tips, and are turned upwards .
The Kerry is active and graceful, long and lithe in body, and light-limbed . On the rich pastures of England it has increased considerably in size . The Dexter breed is reputed to take its name from one Dexter,
See also:agent of
See also:Maude, Lord Hawarden, who is credited with having established it by selection and breeding from the best
See also:mountain types of the Kerry . Until recently it was called the Dexter-Kerry . It is smaller and more compact than the Kerry, shorter in the
See also:leg, and intoed before and behind . Whilst valuable as a beef-making animal, it is equally noted for its milk-producing capacity . Black is the usual colour, but red is also recognized, with, in either case, a little white . When of a red colour, the appearance of the animal has been aptly compared to that of a
See also:grand Shorthorn viewed through the wrong end of a
See also:telescope . The Kerry and the Dexter are readily distinguishable . The Kerry has a gay, light, deer-like head and horn, light limbs and thin skin . The Dexter has coarser limbs, a square body,
See also:flat back, thick
See also:shoulder, short
See also:neck, and head and horn set on low . A herd of Dexter-Shorthorns was founded by Major
See also:Barton at Straffan, Ireland, in 186o, in which prominent characteristics of the two breeds have been permanently blended so that they breed true to type .
As milk-producers, and therefore as dairy cattle, certain strains of the Shorthorn (registered as well as non-pedigree), the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, South Devon, Longhorn, Red Polled, Ayrshire, Jersey, Guernsey, Kerry and Dexter breeds have acquired
See also:eminence . Such breeds as the Shorthorn, Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, South Devon, Welsh, Red Polled and Dexter are claimed as useful beef-makers as well as milk-producers, and are classified as dual-purpose animals . The others belong to the beef-producers . As regards colour, red is characteristic of the Lincolnshire Shorthorn, the Hereford, Devon, Sussex and Red Polled . Black is the dominating colour of the Welsh, Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Kerry and Dexter . A yellowish hue is seen in the West Highland, Guernsey and South Devon breeds . Various shades of fawn colour are usual in Jersey cattle and also appear among Highlanders . The Herefords, though with red bodies, have white faces,
See also:manes, and dewlaps, whilst white prevails to a greater or less extent in the Shorthorn, Longhorn and Ayrshire breeds . The Shorthorn breed is exceedingly variable in colour; pure-bred specimens may be red, or white, or roan, or may be marked with two or more of these colours, the roan resulting from a blending of the white and red . Black is not seen in a pure-bred Shorthorn . The biggest and heaviest cattle come from the beef-making breeds, and are often cross-bred . Very large or heavy beasts, if pure-bred, usually belong to one or other of the Shorthorn, Hereford, Sussex, Welsh, West High-land, Aberdeen-Angus. and Galloway breeds .
The Devon, Red Polled and Guernsey are medium-sized cattle; the Ayrshires are smaller, although relatively the bullocks grow larger than bulls or cows . The Jerseys are small, graceful cattle, but the smaller type of Kerries, the Dexters and the Shetlanders furnish the smallest cattle of the British Isles . See generally the Herd Books of the various breed
See also:societies . (W . FR.; R . W.) Rearing and Feeding.1-A calf at birth scales from one-twelfth to one-fourteenth the weight of the
See also:dam . A sucking calf of one of the large breeds should gain 3 lb per
See also:day for the first
See also:month, 2.5 lb for the second, and 2 lb during the later calf period . Colostrum, or first-day milk after calving, contains more than five times the albuminoid compounds found in
See also:average cows' milk . In the course of three or four days it gradually becomes normal in composition, although the
See also:peculiar flavour remains a few days longer . Nature has specially prepared it for the young 1 See E .
See also:Wolff, Farm Foods, by H . H .
See also:Cousins (1895) ; A . D .
See also:Hall, Rothamsted Experiments (1905); R . Warington, Chemistry of the Farm (15th ed., 1902) ; W . A .
See also:Henry, Feeds and Feeding (1907) ; H . W . Mumford, Beef Production (1907); H . P . Armsby, Animal
See also:Nutrition (2nd ed., 1906); T .
See also:Shaw, Animal Breeding (1903); R . Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (4th ed., 1907) .
calf with extremely nourishing and also laxative properties, and it is of practically no value for any other purpose . Normal cows' milk has an albuminoid ratio slightly narrower than I : 4-colostrum I : •71 . [The ratio is arrived at by adding to the percentage of milk-
See also:sugar, possessing about the food
See also:equivalent of
See also:starch, the fat multiplied by 2.268, and dividing by the
See also:total albuminoids-all digestible.]
See also:Common nutrient ratios for older animals are stated in the following table of food
See also:standards by Dr Emil Wolff :- Digestible albuminoid nitrogen is the scarcest and consequently the costliest ingredient in food-stuffs, but, since the introduction of
See also:vegetable proteid made by
See also:process from the
See also:castor bean, an easy and inexpensive means of balancing cattle food ratios is available . By this means the manurial value of the excrement is increased . The calculations necessary in arriving at a ratio are simJ lified by the employment of Jeffers's calculator (Plainsboro, There are three common methods of rearing calves . (I) The calf sucks its
See also:mother or
See also:foster-mother . This is the natural method and the best for the show-yard and for early fattening purposes; but it is the most expensive, and the calves, if not handled, grow up wild and dangerous .
See also:Store stock may be also raised by putting two calves to one cow and weaning at three months old;. a second pair in turn yielding place to a single calf . (2) Full milk from the cow at about 900 F. is given alone until the latter part of the milk period; then the calf is trained to eat supplementary foods to preserve the calf-fat after weaning . A large calf at first receives daily three quarts of milk at three meals . The amount is increased to 2 gallons by the end of the
See also:fourth week, and to 21 gallons at 3 months, when gradual weaning begins .
See also:Linseed cake
See also:meal is specially suitable for such calves .
(3) The calf receives full milk from the mother for one to two
See also:weeks, or better, for three to four weeks; then it is slowly transferred to fortified separated milk or milk substitutes .
See also:liver oil, 2 oz. daily, is a good substitute for butter fat . In America
See also:cotton-seed oil, z oz. to the quart of milk, or an equivalent of oleomargarine heated to Ito° F. and churned with separated milk, has produced a live-weight-increase of 2 lb daily . Linseed simmered to a jelly and added to separated milk gives good results . Moderate amounts are easily digested . Oatmeal or
See also:maize meal containing Io % of linseed meal does well, later, at less cost . Milk substitutes and calf meals require close attention in preparation, and would not fetch the prices they do if feeders possessed the technical knowledge necessary to select and mix common foods . Ground cake or linseed meal is, after a time, better given dry than cooked, being then better masticated and not so liable to produce in-digestion . Grass or fine
See also:hay in racks is provided when the calf can chew the cud . As cattle get older, live-weight-increase grows less . Smithfield weights' show that a good
See also:bullock up to a year old will increase 2 lb daily, a two-year-old 14 lb, and a three-year-old a little over 14 lb . Cattle feeding on a farm consume crude produce that is in-convenient to market, and make farmyard manure; but there is frequently no profit left .
To secure the
See also:balance on the right ' E . J . Powell, History of the Smithfield
See also:Club from 1798 to 1900 (1902).side the inlaid price per live cwt. requires to be 5s. less than the sale price-say 32s. per cwt. for lean cattle, and 37s. per cwt. for the animal when sold fat and capable of producing 6o% of dressed beef . The ordinary animal yields only about 57 % . A well-bred fattening bullock begins with 2 lb of cake and meal per day, increasing to 8 lb at the end of five months (6 lb on an average), and receives : cwt. of roots and 12 1b of
See also:straw; at an average cost of about 4S . 3d. per imperial stone or 50s. per cwt. of dressed carcase . Heifers feed faster than bullocks, and age tells on the
See also:rate at which an animal will mature: a three-year-old will develop into prime beef more quickly and easily than a two-year-old . It is difficult to produce " baby beef " at a profit, and it can only be done with picked animals of the best flesh-producing breeds, which cannot be bought at a price per cwt. below the finished sale price, for animals producing baby beef must from start to finish (under two years old) be at all times
See also:fit to go to the fat market . It is true that a very young animal can give a better account of food than an older one, but this advantage is counterbalanced by the tendency to grow rather than to fatten . (See also
See also:AGRICULTURE.) In
See also:cold and stormy districts cattle thrive best in covered courts, but in a mild climate they do equally well in open yards with shelter-sheds . The more air they get the less liable they are to
See also:tuberculosis-example Lincolnshire and the drier south-eastern counties . The ideal method of
See also:house-feeding cattle is singly in boxes 10 ft. square, where they are undisturbed, and where the best manure is made because it is not washed by
See also:rain .
On the finest British grazing lands two lots of cattle are fed in one
See also:season . The first is finished early in
See also:July, having, without artificial feeding, laid on eight to nine stones of beef . The second lot requires three or four pounds of undecorticated cotton cake each towards the end of
See also:September and in
See also:October when grass begins to fail . (R .
GEORGE CATTERMOLE (1800-1868)
GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS (?84-J4 B.C.)
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