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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 591 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CAZEMBE, the hereditary name of an African chief, whose territory was situated south of Lake Mweru and north of Bangweulu, between 90 and 11° S. In the end of the 18th century the authority of the Cazembe was recognized over a very extensive district. The kingdom, known also as the Cazembe, continued to exist, though with gradually diminishing power and extent, until the last quarter of the 19th century, when the Cazembe sank to the rank of a petty chief. The country is now divided between Great Britain and Belgian Congo. The British half, lying east of the Luapula, forms part of Rhodesia, and the chief town in it is called Kazembe. The native state, ruled by a negro race who overcame the aboriginals, had attained a certain degree of civilization. Agriculture was diligently followed, and cotton cloth, earthenware and iron goods manufactured. The country contains rich deposits of copper, and copper ore was one of the principal articles of export. The Cazembe had despotic power and used it in barbarous fashion. He had hundreds of wives, and his chiefs imitated his example according to their means. On his accession every new Cazembe chose a new site for his residence. In 1796 the Cazembe was visited by Manoel Caetano Pereira, a Portuguese merchant; and in 1798 a more important journey to the same region was undertaken by Dr Francisco Jose Maria de Lacerda. He died in that country on the 18th of October that year, but left behind him a valuable journal. In 1802 two native traders or pombeiros, Pedro Joao Baptista and Amara Jose, were sent by the Portuguese on a visit to, the Cazembe; and in 1831 a more extensive mission was despatched by the Portuguese governor of Sena. It consisted of Major Jose Monteiro and Antonio Gamitto, with an escort of 20 soldiers and 120 negro slaves as porters; but its reception by the Cazembe was not altogether satisfactory. In 1868 David Livingstone visited the Cazembe, whose capital at that time numbered no more than loco souls. Since 1894, when the country was divided between Britain and the Congo State, it has been thoroughly explored. An important copper mining industry is carried on in the Congo division of the territory. See The Lands of the Cazembe, published by the Royal Geographical Society in 1873, containing translations of Lacerda and Baptista's journals, and a resume of Gamitto's 0 Muata Cazembe (Lisbon, 1854); also Livingstone's Last Journals (London, 1874). 'CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES (184o-19o1), French landscape-painter, son of a well-known doctor, F. J. Cazin (1788-1864), was born at Samer, Pas-de-Calais. Af ter studying in France, he went to England, where he was strongly influenced by the pre-Raphaelite movement. His chief earlier pictures have a religious interest, shown in such examples as " The Flight into Egypt " (1877), or " Hagar and Ishmael " (188o, Luxembourg); and afterwards his combination of luminous landscape with figure-subjects (" Souvenir de fete," 1881; " Journee faite," 1888) gave him a wide repute, and made him the leader of a new school of idealistic subject-painting in France. He was made an officer of the Legion of Honour in 1889. His charming and poetical treatment of landscape is the feature in his painting which in later years has given them an increasing value among connoisseurs. His wife, Marie Cazin, who was his pupil and exhibited her first picture at the Salon in 1876, the same year in which Cazin himself made his debut there, was also a well-known artist and sculptor.
End of Article: CAZEMBE
HENRI CAZALIS (1840-1909)

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