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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 807 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JEAN BAPTISTE MARIUS AUGUSTIN CHALLAMEL (1818-'894), French historian, was born in Paris on the 18th of March 18'8. His writings consist chiefly of popular works, which enjoyed great success. The value of some of his books is enhanced by numerous illustrations, e.g. Histoire-musee de la Revolution francaise, which appeared in 5o numbers in 1841–1842 (3rd ed., in 72 numbers, 1857–1858); Histoire de la mode en France; la toilette des femmes depuis l'epoque gallo-romaine jusqu'd nos fours (1874, with 12 plates; new ed., 188o, with 21 coloured plates). His Memoires du peuple francaise (1865–1873) and La France et les Francais a travers les sibcles (1882) at least have the merit of being among the first books written on the social history of France. In this sense Challamel was a pioneer, of no great originality, it is true, but at any rate of fairly wide information. He died on the loth of October 1894. CHALLEMEL-LACOUR, PAUL AMAND (1827-'896), French statesman, was born at Avranches on the 19th of May 1827. After passing through the Ecole Normale Superieure he became professor of philosophy successively at Pau and at Limoges. The coup d'etat of '851 caused his expulsion from France for his republican opinions. He travelled on the continent, and in 1856 settled down as professor of French literature at the Polytechnic of Zurich. The amnesty of '859 enabled him to return to France, but a projected course of lectures on history and art was immediately suppressed. He now supported himself by his pen, and became a regular contributor to the reviews. On the fall of the Second Empire in September '87o the government of national defence appointed him prefect of the department of the Rhone, in which capacity he had to suppress the Communist rising at Lyons. Resigning his post on the 5th of February 1871, he was in January 1872 elected to the National Assembly, and in 1876 to the Senate. He sat at first on the Extreme Left; but his philosophic and critical temperament was not in harmony with the recklessness of French radicalism, and his attitude towards political questions underwent a steady modification, till the close of his life saw him the foremost representative of moderate republicanism. During Gambetta's lifetime, however, Challemel-Lacour was one of his warmest supporters, and he was for a time editor of Gambetta's organ, the Republique francaise. In 1879 he was appointed French ambassador at Bern, and in '88o was transferred to London; but he lacked the suppleness and command of temper necessary to a successful diplomatist. He resigned in 1882, and in February 1883 became minister of foreign affairs in the Jules Ferry cabinet, but retired in November of the same year. In 1890 he was elected vice-president of the Senate, and in '893 succeeded Jules Ferry as its president. His influence over that body was largely due to his clear and reasoned eloquence, which placed him at the head of contemporary French orators. In 1893 he also became a member of the French Academy. He distinguished himself by the vigour with which he upheld the Senate against the encroachments of the chamber, but in '895 failing health forced him to resign, and he died in Paris on the 26th of October 1896. He published a translation of A. Heinrich Ritter's Geschichte der Philosophie (1861); La Philosophie individualiste: etude sur Guillaume de Humboldt (1864); and an edition of the works of Madame d'Epinay (1869). In '897 appeared Joseph Reinach's edition of the Euvres oratoires de Challemel-Lacour.
CHALLENGE (O. Fr. chalonge, calenge, &c., from Lat....

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