See also:charge against a
See also:person or a claim to anything, a
See also:defiance . The
See also:term is now particularly used of an invitation to a trial of skill in any contest, or to a trial by combat as a vindication of
See also:honour (see DUEL), and, in
See also:law, of the objection to the members of a
See also:jury allowed in a
See also:action or in a criminal trial (see JURY) . " CHALLENGER" EXPEDITION . The scientific results of several
See also:short expeditions between 186o and 187o encouraged the council of the Royal Society to approach the
See also:government, on the
See also:suggestion of
See also:Richards, hydrographer to the
See also:admiralty, with a view to commissioning a vessel for a prolonged cruise for oceanic exploration . The government detailed H.M.S . " Challenger," a wooden corvette of 2306 tons, for the purpose . Captain (afterwards Sir) George
See also:Nares was placed in command, with a
See also:crew; and a scientific
See also:staff was selected by the society with
See also:Professor (afterwards Sir) C . Wyville
See also:Thomson as director . The staff included Mr (afterwards Sir)
See also:Murray and Mr H . N . Moseley, biologists; Dr von Willemoes-Suhm,
See also:Commander Tizard, and Mr J . Y .
See also:Buchanan, chemist and geologist . A
See also:scheme of instructions was
See also:drawn up by the society . The " Challenger " sailed from Ports-mouth in
See also:December 1872 . For nearly a
See also:year the
See also:work of the expedition
See also:lay in the
See also:Atlantic, which was crossed several times .
See also:Teneriffe, the
See also:Bermudas, the
See also:Azores, Madeira, the Cape Verd Islands,
See also:Bahia and Tristan da Cunha were successively visited, and in
See also:October 1873 the
See also:ship reached Cape
See also:Town . Steering then south-east and east she visited the various islands between 45° and 5o° S., and reached Kerguelen
See also:Island in
See also:January 1874 . She next proceeded southward about the meridian of 8o° E . She was the first steamship to
See also:cross the
See also:Antarctic circle, but the attainment of a high southerly latitude was not an
See also:object of the voyage, and early in
See also:March the ship
See also:left the south polar *regions and made for Melbourne . Extensive researches were now made in the Pacific . The route led by New Zealand, the Fiji Islands, Torres Strait, the
See also:Sea, and the
See also:China Sea to Hong
See also:Kong . The western Pacific was then explored northward to
See also:Yokohama, after which the " Challenger " struck across the ocean by
See also:Honolulu and
See also:Tahiti to
See also:Valparaiso . She then coasted southward, penetrated the Straits of
See also:Magellan, touched at
See also:Montevideo, recrossed the Atlantic by Ascension and the Azores, and reached
See also:Sheerness in May 1876 .
This voyage is without parallel in the
See also:history of scientific
See also:research . The " Challenger "
See also:Report was issued in fifty volumes (
See also:London, 188o-1895), mainly under the direction of Sir John Murray, who succeeded Wyville Thomson in this work in 1882 . Specialists in every branch of science assisted in its production . The zoological collections alone formed the basis for the majority of the volumes; the deep-sea soundings and samples of the deposits, the chemical analysis of
See also:water samples, the meteorological, water-temperature, magnetic,
See also:geological, and botanical observations were fully worked out, and a
See also:summary of the scientific results, narrative of the cruise and indices were also provided . See also
See also:Lord G .
See also:Log Letters from the " Challenger," (1876) ; W . J . J . Spry, Cruise of H.M.S . ` Challenger" (1876); Sir C . Wyville Thomson, Voyage of the " Challenger," The Atlantic, Preliminary Account of General Results (1877) ; J . J .
See also:Wild; At Anchor; Narrative of Experiences afloat and ashore during the Voyage of H.M.S . " Challenger " (1878) ; H . N . Moseley, Notes by a Naturalist on the " Challenger " (1879) .
JEAN BAPTISTE MARIUS AUGUSTIN CHALLAMEL (1818-'894)...
RICHARD CHALLONER (1691-1781)
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