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HEINRICH MORITZ CHALYBAUS (1796-1862)

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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 812 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HEINRICH MORITZ CHALYBAUS (1796-1862), German philosopher, was born at Pfaffroda in Saxony. For some years he taught at Dresden, and won a high reputation by his lectures on the history of philosophy in Germany. In 1839 he became professor in Kiel University, where, with the exception of one brief interval, when he was expelled with several colleagues because of his German sympathies, he remained till his death. His first published work, Historische Entwickelung der spekulaliven Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel (1837, 5th ed. 1860), which still ranks among the best expositions of modern German thought, has been twice translated into English, by A. Tulk (London, 1854), and by A. Edersheim (Edinburgh, 1854). His chief works are Entwurf eines Systems der Wissenschaftslehre (Kiel, 1846) and System der spekulativen Ethik (2 vols., 1850). He opposed both the extreme realism of Herbart and what he regarded as the one-sided idealism of Hegel, and endeavoured to find a mean between them, to discover the ideal or formal principle which unfolds itself in the real or material world presented to it. His Wissenschaftslehre, accordingly, divides itself into (1) Principlehre, or theory of the one principle; (2) Vermittelungslehre, or theory of the means by which this principle realizes itself; and (3) Teleologie. The most noticeable point is the position assigned by Chalybaus to the " World Ether," which is defined as the infinite in time and space, and which, he thinks, must be posited as necessarily coexisting with the Infinite Spirit or God. The fundamental principle of the System der Ethik is carried out with great strength of thought, and with an unusually complete command of ethical material. See J. E. Erdmann, Grundriss der Gesch. d. Philos. ii. 781-786; K. Prantl, in Allgem. deutsch. Biog.
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