See also:cardinal of
See also:Lorraine, French states-man, was the second son of
See also:Claude of Lorraine, duke of Guise, and
See also:brother of
See also:Francis, duke of Guise . He was archbishop of Reims in 1538, and cardinal in 1547 . At first he was called the cardinal of Guise, but in 1550, on the
See also:death of his
See also:John, cardinal of Lorraine, he in his turn took the
See also:style of cardinal of Lorraine . Brilliant, cunning and a
See also:master of intrigue, he was, like all the Guises, devoured with ambition and devoid of scruples . He had, said Brant6me, " a soul exceeding smirched," and, he adds, " by nature he was exceeding craven." Together with his brother, Duke Francis, the cardinal of Lorraine was all-powerful during the reigns of
See also:Henry II. and Francis II.; in 1558 and 1559 he was one of the negotiators of the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis; he fought and pitilessly persecuted the reformers, and by his intolerant policy helped to provoke the crisis of the
See also:wars of religion . The death of Francis II. deprived him of power, but he remained one of the
See also:principal leaders of the Catholic party . In 1561, at the Colloquy of Poissy, he was commissioned to reply to
See also:Theodore Beza . In 1562 he went to the council of Trent, where he at first defended the rights of the Gallican
See also:Church against the pretensions of the
See also:pope; but after the assassination of his brother, he approached the
See also:court of Rome, and on his return to France he endeavoured, but without success, to obtain the promulgation of the decrees of the council (1564) . In 1567, when the Protestants took up arms, he held for some
See also:time the first place in the
See also:king's council, but Catherine de' Medici soon
See also:grew weary of his arrogance, and in 1570 he had to leave the court . He endeavoured to regain favour by negotiating at Rome the
See also:dispensation for the
See also:marriage of Henry of
See also:Navarre with
See also:Margaret of Valois (1572) . He died on the 26th of
See also:December 1574, at the beginning of the reign of Henry III . An orator of
See also:talent, he
See also:left several harangues or sermons, among them being Oraison prononcee au Colloque de Poissy (
See also:Paris, 1562) and Oratio habita in Concil .
Trident . (Concil . Trident . Orationes,
See also:Louvain, 1567) . A large amount of
See also:correspondence is preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris . See also Rene de Bouille, Histoire
See also:des ducs de Guise (Paris, 1849) ; H . Forneron,
See also:Les Guises et leur $poque (Paris, 1877); Guillemin, Le Cardinal de Lorraine (1847) .
CHARLES (Fr. Charles; Span. Carlos; Ital. Carlo; Ge...
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