See also:American states-man and jurist, was
See also:born in Cornish township, New Hampshire, on the 13th of
See also:January 18o8 . His
See also:father died in 1817, and the son passed several years (182o-1824) in
See also:Ohio with his
See also:Bishop Philander
See also:Chase (1775-1852), the foremost
See also:pioneer of the
See also:Protestant Episcopal
See also:Church in the West, the first bishop of Ohio (1819-1831), and after 1835 bishop of
See also:Illinois . He graduated at Dartmouth
See also:College in 1826, and after studying
See also:law under
See also:William Wirt,
See also:attorney-general of the
See also:United States, in
See also:Washington, D.C., was admitted to the
See also:bar in 1829, and removed to
See also:Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1830 . Here he, soon gained a position of prominence at the bar, and published an annotated edition, which long remained standard, of the
See also:laws of Ohio . At a
See also:time when public opinion in Cincinnati was largely dominated by
See also:Southern business connexions, Chase, influenced probably by
See also:James G .
See also:Birney, associated himself after about 1836 with the
See also:movement, and became recognized as the
See also:leader of the
See also:political reformers as opposed to the Garrisonian abolitionists . To the cause he freely gave his services as a lawyer, and was particularly conspicuous as counsel for fugitive slaves seized in Ohio for rendition to slavery under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793—indeed, he came to be known as the " attorney-general of fugitive slaves." His
See also:argument (147) in the famous
See also:Van Zandt case before the United . States Supreme
See also:Court attracted particular
See also:attention, though in this as in other cases of the kind the
See also:judgment was against him . In brief he contended that slavery was "
See also:local, not
See also:national," that it could exist only by virtue of
See also:positive State Law, that the Federal
See also:government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that " when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state he ceases to be a slave, because he continues to be a man and leaves behind him the law which made him a slave." In 1841 he abandoned the Whig party, with which he had previously been affiliated, and for seven years was the undisputed leader of the Liberty party in Ohio; he was remarkably skilful in drafting platforms and addresses, and it was he who prepared the national Liberty platform of 1843 and the Liberty address of 1845 . Realizing in time that a third party movement could not succeed, he took the lead during the
See also:campaign of 1848 in combining the Liberty party with the Barnburners or Van Buren Democrats of New
See also:York to
See also:form the
See also:Free-Soilers . He drafted the famous Free-
See also:Soil platform, and it was largely through his influence that Van Buren was nominated for the
See also:presidency . His
See also:object, how-ever, was not to establish a permanent new party organization, but to bring pressure to bear upon
See also:Northern Democrats to force them to adopt a policy opposed to the further extension of slavery .
In 1849 he was elected to the United States
See also:Senate as the result of a coalition between the Democrats and a small
See also:group of Free-Soilers in the state legislature; and for some years thereafter, except in 1852, when he rejoined the Free-Soilers, he classed himself as an
See also:Independent Democrat, though he was out of harmony with the leaders of the Democratic party . During his service in the Senate (1849-1855) he was pre-eminently the
See also:champion of anti-slavery in that
See also:body, and no one spoke more ably than he did against the Compromise
See also:Measures of 1850 and the Kansas-
See also:Bill of 1854 . The Kansas-Nebraska legislation, and the subsequent troubles in Kansas, having convinced him of the futility of trying to influence the Democrats, he assumed the leadership in the
See also:North-west of the movement to form a new party to oppose the extension of slavery . The "
See also:Appeal of the Independent Democrats in Congress to the
See also:People of the United States," written by Chase and
See also:Giddings, and published in the New York Times of the 24th of January 1854, may be regarded as the earliest draft of the Republican party creed . He was the first Republican
See also:governor of Ohio,, serving from 1855 to 1859 . Although, with the exception of Seward, he was the most prominent Republican in the
See also:country, and had done more against slavery than any other Republican, he failed to secure the nomination for the presidency in 1860, partly because his views on the question of
See also:protection were not orthodox from a Republican point of view, and partly because the old
See also:line Whig
See also:element could not forgive his coalition with the Democrats in the senatorial campaign of 1849; his uncompromising and conspicuous anti-slavery record, too, was against him from the point of view of " availability." As secretary of the
See also:treasury in
See also:President Lincoln's
See also:cabinet in '861–1864, during the first three years of the
See also:Civil War, he rendered services of the greatest value . That
See also:period of crisis witnessed two
See also:great changes in American
See also:financial policy, the
See also:establishment of a national banking
See also:system and the issue of a legal
See also:tender paper currency . The former was Chase's own particular measure . He suggested the idea, worked out all of the important principles and many of the details, and induced Congress to accept them . The success of that system alone warrants his being placed in the first
See also:rank of American financiers . It not only secured an immediate market for government bonds, but it also provided a permanent
See also:uniform national currency, which, though inelastic, is absolutely
See also:stable . The issue of legal tenders, the greatest financial blunder of the war, was made contrary to his wishes, although he did not, as he perhaps ought to have done, push his opposition to the point of resigning .
Perhaps Chase'schief defect as a statesman was an insatiable
See also:desire for supreme
See also:office . It was partly this ambition, and also temperamental differences from the president, which led him to retire from the cabinet in
See also:June 1864 . A few months later (
See also:December 6, 1864) he was appointed chief
See also:justice of the United States Supreme Court to succeed
See also:Taney, a position which he held until his
See also:death in 1873 . Among his most important decisions were
See also:Texas v .
See also:White (7
See also:Wallace, 7oo), 1869, in which he asserted that the Constitution provided for an " in-destructible union composed of indestructible states," Veazie
See also:Bank v . Fenno (8 Wallace, 533), 1869, in defence of that
See also:part of the banking legislation of the Civil War which imposed a tax of to% on state bank-notes, and
See also:Hepburn v .
See also:Griswold (8 Wallace, 603), 1869, which declared certain parts of the legal tender acts to be unconstitutional . When the legal tender decision was reversed after the
See also:appointment of new
See also:judges, 1871-1872 (Legal Tender Cases, 12 Wallace, 457), Chase prepared a' very able dissenting opinion . Toward the end of his
See also:life he gradually drifted back toward his old Democratic position, and made an unsuccessful effort to secure the nomination of the Democratic party for the presidency in 1872 . He died in New York city on the 7th of May 1873 . Chase was one of the ablest political leaders of the Civil War period, and deserves to be placed in the front rank of American statesmen . The. standard biography is A .
See also:Hart's Salmon
See also:Portland Chase in the " American Statesmen Series " (1899) . Less philosophical, but containing a greater
See also:wealth of detail, is J . W . Shuckers' Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (New York, 1874) . R . B .
See also:Warden's Account of the Private Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (Cincinnati, 1874) deals more fully with Chase's private life .
SAMUEL CHASE (1741–1811)
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