CHERBOURG , a
See also:naval station, fortified
See also:town and seaport of
See also:north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of
See also:Manche, on the
See also:English Channel, 232 M . W.N.W. of
See also:Paris on the Ouest-Etat railway . Pop . (1906) town, 35,710; commune, 43,827 . Cherbourg is situated at the mouth of the Divette, on a small
See also:bay at the
See also:apex of the indentation formed by the
See also:shore of the peninsula of Cotentin . Apart from a
See also:fine hospital and the
See also:church of La Trinite dating from the 15th century, the town has no buildings of
See also:interest . A
See also:rich collection of paintings is housed in the hotel de ville . A statue of the painter J . F .
See also:born near Cherbourg, stands in the public
See also:garden, and there is an equestrian statue of
See also:Napoleon I. in the square named after him . Cherbourg is a fortified place of the first class, headquarters of one of the five naval arrondissements of France, and the seat of a sub-
See also:prefect . It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee and a naval school .
See also:industries of the town proper are fishing, saw-milling, tanning,
See also:building, iron and copper-founding, rope-making and the manufacture of agricultural implements . There are
See also:stone quarries in the environs, and the town has
See also:trade in
See also:farm produce . Cherbourg derives its chief importance from its naval and commercial harbours, which are distant from each other about
See also:half a mile . The former consists of three
See also:main basins cut out of the
See also:rock, and has an
See also:area of 55 acres . The minimum
See also:depth of
See also:water is 30 ft . Connected with the
See also:harbour are dry docks, the yards where the largest
See also:ships in the French
See also:navy are constructed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops requisite for a naval
See also:arsenal of the first class . The
See also:works and town are carefully guarded on every side by redoubts and fortifications, and are commanded by batteries on the surrounding hills . There is a large naval hospital close to the harbour . The commerical harbour at the mouth of the Divette communicates with the
See also:sea by a channel 65o yds. long . It consists of two parts, an
See also:outer and tidal harbour 171 acres in extent, and an inner
See also:basin 15 acres in extent, with a depth on
See also:sill at ordinary
See also:tide of 25 ft . Outside these harbours is the triangular bay, which forms the roadstead of Cherbourg . The bay is admirably sheltered by the
See also:land on every side but the north .
On that side it is sheltered by a huge
See also:breakwater, over 2 M. in length, with a width of 65o ft. at its
See also:base and 30 ft. at its
See also:summit, which is protected by forts, and leaves passages for vessels to the east and west . These passages are guarded by forts placed on islands intervening between the breakwater and the mainland, and themselves
See also:united to the land by breakwaters . The
See also:surface within these barriers amounts to about J700 acres . Cherbourg is a
See also:port of
See also:call for the
See also:American, North German Lloyd and other important lines of transatlantic steamers . The chief exports are stone for road-making,
See also:butter, eggs and vegetables; the chief imports are
See also:timber, superphosphates and
See also:wine from Algeria .
See also:Great Britain is the
See also:principal customer . Cherbourg is supposed by some investigators to occupy the site of the
See also:Roman station of Coriallum, but nothing definite is known about its origin . The name was long regarded as a corruption of Caesaris Burgus (Caesar's
See also:Borough) .
See also:William the Conqueror, under whom it appears as Carusbur, provided it with a hospital and a church; and
See also:Henry II. of England on several occasions
See also:chose it as his residence . In 1295 it waspillaged by an English
See also:fleet from Yarmouth; and in the 14th century it frequently suffered during the
See also:wars against the English . Captured by the English in 1418 after a four months'
See also:siege, it was recovered by
See also:Charles VII. of France in 1450 . An attempt was made under
See also:Louis XIV. to construct a military port; but the fortifications were dismantled in 1688, and further damage was inflicted by the English in 1758 .
See also:Vauban planned harbour-works which were begun under Louis XVI. and continued by Napoleon I . It was
See also:left, however, to Louis Philippe, and particularly to Napoleon III., to
See also:complete them, and their successful realization was celebrated ins 1858, in the presence of the
See also:queen of England, against whose dominions they had at one
See also:time been mainly directed . At the close of 1857, £8,000,000, of which the breakwater cost over £2,500,000, had been expended on the works; in 1889 a further sum of £68o,000 was voted by the Chamber of Deputies for the improvement of the port .
CHARLES VICTOR CHERBULIEZ (1829-1899)
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