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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 65 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHI C CIH Ott (I) (_) (3) (4) (5) The first suggestion is quite out of the question. C. Graebe in 1866 (Ann. 149, p. 20) established the symmetry of the naphthalene nucleus, and showed that whichever half of the molecule be oxidized the same phthalic acid results. Therefore formula (2), being unsymmetrical, is impossible. The third formula is based on Dewar's benzene formula, which we have seen to be incorrect. Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found. In 1882 Claus suggested a combination of his own and Dewar's benzene formulae. This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus. Bamberger opposed Claus' formula on the following grounds:—The molecule of naphthalene is symmetrical, since 2.7 dioxynaphthalene is readily esterified by methyl iodide and sulphuric acid to a dimethyl ether; and no more than two mono-substitution derivatives are known. The molecule is aromatic but not benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the molecule, the other assumes a benzenoid character. If /3-naphthylamine and fl-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro products are obtained in which the amino- or oxy-bearing half of the molecule becomes aliphatic in character. The compounds so obtained, alicyclic-$-tetrahydronaphthylamine and alicyclic-S-tetrahydronaphthol, closely resemble 0-aminodiethylbenzene, C6H 4(C2H .C2H 4NH2, and,(3-oxydiethylbenzene,C6H4 (C2H6) • C2H4OH. If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, C6H3•NH2(C2H5)2, and oxydiethylbenzene, C6H3 OH(C,H5)2. Barnberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced. It remains,. therefore, to consider Erlenmeyer's formula and those derived from the centric hypothesis. The former, based on Kekule's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is. On the centric hypothesis two formulae are possible: .(r) due to H.E. Armstrong, and (2) due to E. Bamberger. (t) (a) In the first symbol it is assumed that one of the affinities of each of the two central carbon atoms common to the two rings acts into both rings, an assumption involving a somewhat wide departure from all ordinary views as to the manner in which affinity acts. This symbol harmonizes with the fact that the two rings are in complete sympathy, the one responding to every change made in the other. Then, on account of the relatively slight—because divided—influence which would be exercised upon the two rings by the two. affinities common to both, the remaining four centric affinities of each ring would presumably be less attracted into the ring than in the case of benzene; consequently they would be more active outwards, and combination would set in more readily. When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive. This is absolutely the case. On the other hand, if substitution be effected in the one ring, and the affinities in that ring become attracted inwards, as apparently happens in the case of benzene, the adjoining ring should become relatively more active because the common affinities would act less into it. Hence, unless the radical introduced be one which exercises a special attractive influence, substitution should take place in preference in the previously unsubstituted ring. In practice this usually occurs; for example, on further bromination, a-bromonaphthalene yields a mixture of the (1.4) and (1.5) dibromonaphthalenes; and when nitro-naphthalene is either brominated, or nitrated or sulphonated, the action is practically confined to the second ring. The centric formula proposed by Bamberger represents naphthalene as formed by the fusion of two benzene rings, this indicates that it is a monocyclic composed of ten atoms of carbon. The formula has the advantage that it may be constructed from tetrahedral models of the carbon atom; but it involves the assumption that the molecule has within it a mechanism, equivalent in a measure to a system of railway points, which can readily close up and pass into that characteristic of benzene. Anthracene and Phenanthrene.—These isomeric hydrocarbons, of the formula C14Hlo, are to be regarded as formed by the fusion of three benzenoid rings as represented by the symbols: Anthracene Phenanthrene In both cases the medial ring is most readily attacked; and various formulae have been devised which are claimed by their authors to represent this and other facts. According to Arm-strong, anthracene behaves unsymmetrically towards substituents, and hence one lateral ring differs from the other; he represents the molecule as consisting of one centric ring, the remaining medial and lateral ring being ethenoid. Bamberger, on the other hand, extends his views on benzene and naphthalene and assumes the molecule to be (1). For general purposes, however, the symbol (2), in which the lateral rings are benzenoid and the medial ring fatty, represents quite adequately the syntheses, decompositions, and behaviour of anthracene. (I) (2) Phenanthrene is regarded by Armstrong as represented by (3), the lateral rings being benzenoid, and the medial ring fatty; Bamberger, however, regards it as (4), the molecule being (3) (4) entirely aromatic. An interesting observation by Baeyer, viz. that stilbene, C6H5 CH:CH•C6Ha, is very readily oxidized, while phenanthrene is not, supports, in some measure, the views of Bamberger. Heterocyclic Compounds. During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene. By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene. In general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present in ethylene and ethylenoid compounds, but that they are analogous to the potential valencies of benzene. The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary !00 Is representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage. Five- and six-membered rings are the most stable and important, the last-named group resulting from the polymerization of many substances; three- and four-membered rings are formed with difficulty, and are easily ruptured; rings containing seven or more members are generally unstable, and are relatively little known. The elements which go to form heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, selenium and nitrogen. It is remarkable that sulphur can replace two methine or CH groups with the production of compounds greatly resembling, the original one. Thus benzene, (CH)6, gives thiophene, (CH)4S, from which it is difficultly distinguished; pyridine, (CH)5N, gives thiazole, (CH)a•N•S, which is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, C8H6S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the derivatives. Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and isoquinoline; anthracene gives acridine and a and f3 anthrapyridines. Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability. Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater complexity. Such condensed nuclei are, in many cases, more readily obtained than the parent nucleus. The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei. Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: V /N./N N NH N CH N I>S toes C•OH a~ a aN> NH + ~~NH + N t H H + ~~N' H B,, imidawla Aaimdobrnaene enupiafMok Benzimidazolone Quinoxaline In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid ; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained. Heterocyclic rings may be systematically surveyed from two aspects: (r) by arranging the rings with similar hetero-atoms according to the increasing number of carbon atoms, the so-called " homologous series "; or (2) by first dividing the ring systems according to the number of members constituting the ring, and then classifying these groups according to the nature of the hetero-atoms, the so-called " isologous series." The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies. As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic ring systems into two leading groups: (r) systems resulting from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of saturated aliphatic compounds—such compounds are: the internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols (ethylene oxide, &c.); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diaminoparaffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c.); the cyclic esters of oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylenamides, &c.). These compounds retain their aliphatic nature, and are best classified with open-chain compounds, into which, in general, they are readily converted. (2) Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series. The transition between the two classes as differentiated above may be illustrated by the following cyclic compounds, each of whichcontains a ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom: CHSCHS\O CH2•CO \O CHZ•CO. CH•COb 'H=CH~ CH2.CH2~ CH2•CH1 CH2•CO/ CH•CO, CH CH Tetramethylene uutyrolactone. Suceinic Maleic Furfurane. oxide. anhydride. anhydride. The first four substances are readily formed from, and converted into, the corresponding dihydroxy open-chain compound; these substances are truly aliphatic in character. The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis. Reduction, however, converts it into an aliphatic compound. This is comparable with the reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of an aliphatic character. True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in three- and four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings. The three primary members are furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol, each of which contains four methine or CH groups, and an oxygen, sulphur and imido (NH) member respectively; a series of compounds containing selenium is also known. The formulae of these substances are: CH=CH\ CH=CH CH=CH CH=CH CH=CHzO CH=CHAS CH=CH/Se CH=CH/NH Furfurane. Thiophene. Selenophene. Pyrrol. By substituting one or- more CH groups in these compounds by nitrogen atoms, ring-systems, collectively known as azoles, result. Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value. Thus furfurane yields the following rings by the introduction of one and two nitrogen atoms: - Thiophene yields a similar series: isothiazole (only known as the condensed ring, isobenzothiazole), thiazole, diazosulphides, piazthioles, azosulphimes and thiobiazole (the formulae are 'easily derived from the preceding series by replacing oxygen by sulphur). Thiophene also gives rise to triazsulphole, three nitrogen atoms being introduced. Selenophene gives the series: selenazole, diazoselenide and piaselenole, corresponding to oxazole, diazo-oxides and furazane. Pyrrol yields an analogous series: pyrazole, imidazole or glyoxaline, azimide or osotriazole, triazole and tetrazole: CH =N NH N=CH NH N=N CH=CHI CH =CH/ CH=CH/NH Pyrazole. Imidazole. Azimide. N =CH\ N=N N=CH/ NH N=CH~NH Triazole. Tetrazole. Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively. As before, only true ring nuclei, and not internal anhydrides of aliphatic compounds, will be mentioned. From the pyrone ring the following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the 0 Meta-oxa,Sic or Pentoxaeoline Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, CH=N N=CH N=N CH=CH>O CH=CH' CH=CH" Isoxazole. Oxazole. Diazo-oxides. HC=N N=CH\' N=CHI HC=N~O CH=NCO N=CH' Furazane. Azoximes. Oxybiazole. hydrogen atoms are not printed) : c c c 0 Pyrone 0 Ortho-oxazinc c C N 0 Paroxazine c N 0 Aeoxazine corresponding to paroxazine (para-oxazine). Pyridine gives origin to: pyridazine or ortho-diazine, pyrimidine or metadiazine, pyrazine or para-diazine, osotriazine, unsymmetrical triazine, symmetrical triazine, osotetrazone and tetrazine. The skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for brevity) : We have previously referred to the condensation of heterocyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei. The more important nuclei of this type have received special and non-systematic names; when this is not the case, such terms as phen-, benzo-, naphtho- are prefixed to the name of the heterocyclic ring. One or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being vicinal to the hetero-atom. The mono-benzo-derivatives are coumarone, benzothiophene and indole; the dibenzo-derivatives are diphenylene oxide, dibenzothiophene or diphenylene sulphide, and carbazole. Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH): R R. Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom; these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal anhydrides. Benz-oxazoles and -thiazoles have been prepared, benz-isoxazoles are known as indoxazenes; benzo-pyrazoles occur in two structural forms, named indazoles and isindazoles. Derivatives of osotriazol also exist in two forms—azimides and pseudo-azimides. Proceeding to the six-membered hetero-atomic rings, the benzo-, dibenzo- and naphtho-derivatives are frequently of great commercial and scientific importance. a-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo-ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are. fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and 0-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an inter-mediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines. Naphthyridines and naphthinolines result from the condensation of two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei condensed with a benzene nucleus. Benzo-orthoxazines, -metoxazines and -paroxazines are known: dibenzoparoxazine or phenoxazine is the parent of a valuable series of dyestuffs; dibenzoparathiazine or thiodiphenylamine is important from the same aspect. Benzo-ortho-diazines exist in two structural forms, cinnolin and phthalazine; benzo-meta-diazines are known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxalines; the dibenzo-compounds are named phenazines, this last group including many valuable dyestuffs—indulines, safranines, &c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes. V. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds. Such a determination is qualitative, the constituent being only detected or proved to be present, or quantitative, in which the amount present is ascertained. The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type ofreaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present. In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths. Historical.—The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period. The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis. Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia. Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases. During the phlogistic period, the detection of the constituents of compounds was considerably developed. Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman. Scheele enriched the knowledge of chemistry by an immense number of facts, but he did not possess the spirit of working systematically as Bergman did. Bergman laid the foundations of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which the metals may be separated into groups according to their behaviour with certain reagents. This subdivision, which is of paramount importance in the analysis of minerals, was subsequently developed by Wilhelm August Lampadius in his Hand-buck zur chemischen Analyse der Mineralien (18o1) and by John Friedrich A. Gottling in his Praktische Anleitung zur priifenden and zurlegenden Chemie (1802). The introduction of the blowpipe into dry qualitative analysis by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt marks an important innovation. The rapidity of the method, and the accurate results which it gave in the hands of a practised experimenter, led to its systematization by Jons Jakob Berzelius and Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, and in more recent times by K. F. Plattner, whose treatise Die Probirkunst mit dem Lothrohr is a standard work on the subject. Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil. Mag. 16, p. 382) were afterwards perfected by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Merz. Closely related to the flame-colorations, we have to notice the great services rendered by the spectroscope to the detection of elements. Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it. Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition of N ON QN O N N N N ,N N Pyridine Pyrimrdine Pyruine Triazines C NON Odorerrumies nr.,,.nc bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress could be made until the procedure was more accurately determined. Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals. K. F. Wenzel and J. B. Richter contributed to the knowledge of the quantitative composition of salts. Anton Laurent Lavoisier, however, must be considered as the first great exponent of this branch of chemistry. He realized that the composition by weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if chemistry were to advance. His fame rests upon his exposition of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said. He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon to oxygen in carbon dioxide,but his values for theratioof hydrogen to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric acid, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods either for the estimation or separation of the metals. The next advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions. The formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis. Experimental conditions were thoroughly worked out; the necessity of working with hot or cold solutions was clearly emphasized; and the employment of small quantities of substances instead of the large amounts recommended by Klaproth was shown by him to give more consistent results. Since the time of Berzelius many experimenters have entered the lists, and introduced developments which we have not space to mention. We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose 1 and Friedrich Wbhler,'- who, having worked up the results of their teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable accounts of the then known methods of analysis. To K. R. Fresenius, the founder of the Zeitschrift fur anaiytische Chemie (1862), we are particularly indebted for perfecting and systematizing the various methods of analytical chemistry. By strengthening the older methods, and devising new ones, he exerted an influence which can never be overestimated. His text-books on the subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have passed through several editions. The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O. Wolcott Gibbs worked out the electrolytic separation of copper in 1865. Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903). The ever-increasing importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older methods. Volumetric analysis, possessing as it does many advantages over the gravimetric methods, has of late years been extensively developed. Gay Lussac may be regarded as the founder of the method, although rough applications had been previously made by F. A. H. Descroizilles and L. N. Vauquelin. Chlorimetry (1824), alkalimetry (1828), and the volumetric determination of silver and chlorine (1832) were worked out by Gay Lussac; but although the advantages of the method were patent, it received recognition very slowly. The application of potassium permanganate to the estimation of iron by E. Margueritte in 1846, 1 H. Rose, Ausfiihrliches Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (1851). 2 F. Wohler, Die Mineralanalyse in Beispialen (1861). and of iodine and sulphurous acid to the estimation of copper and many other substances by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, marks an epoch in the early history of volumetric analysis. Since then it has been rapidly developed, particularly by Karl Friedrich Mohr and J. Volhard, and these methods rank side by side in value with the older and more tedious gravimetric methods. The detection of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds by the formation of carbon dioxide and water when they are burned was first correctly understood by Lavoisier, and as he had determined the carbon and hydrogen content of these two substances he was able to devise methods by which carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds could be estimated. In his earlier experiments he burned the substance in a known volume of oxygen, and by measuring the residual gas determined the carbon and hydrogen. For substances of a difficultly combustible nature he adopted the method in common use to-day, viz. to mix the substance with an oxidizing agent—mercuric oxide, lead dioxide, and afterwards copper oxide—and absorb the carbon dioxide in potash solution. This method has been improved, especially by Justus v. Liebig; and certain others based on a different procedure have been suggested. The estimation of nitrogen was first worked out in 1830 by Jean Baptiste Dumas, and different processes have been proposed by Will and F. Varrentrapp, J. Kjeldahl and others. Methods for the estimation of the halogens and sulphur were worked out by L. Carius (see below, § Organic Analysis). Only a reference can be made in this summary to the many fields in which analytical chemistry has been developed. Progress in forensic chemistry was only possible after the reactions of poisons had been systematized; a subject which has been worked out by many investigators, of whom we notice K. R. Fresenius, J. and R. Otto, and J. S. Stas. Industrial chemistry makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to deter-mine the purity of a product before it can be valued. This has led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimeter, and of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products. The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (1875—1899) in England, and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, See ADULTERATION. There exists no branch of technical chemistry, hygiene or pharmacy from which the analytical chemist can be spared, since it is only by a continual development of his art that we can hope to be certain of the purity of any preparation. In England this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, has done much for the training of analytical chemists. In the preceding sketch we have given a necessarily brief account of the historical development of analytical chemistry in its main branches. We shall now treat the different methods in more detail. It must be mentioned here that the reactions of any particular substance are given under its own heading, and in this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline the general procedure. The limits of space prevent any systematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these matters may be found are given in the list of references. Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. The dry examination of a substance comprises several operations, which may yield definite results if no disturbing element is present; but it is imperative that any in- my methods. ference should be confirmed by other methods. 1. Heat the substance in a hard glass tube. Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour. Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystallization or decomposed hydrates. If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c. Any evolved gas must be examined. Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts. Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide. Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates. Carbon dioxide, recognized by turning lime-water milky, indicates decomposable carbonates or oxalates. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine, each recognizable by its colour and odour, result from decomposable haloids; iodine forms also a black sublimate. Cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid, recognizable by their odour, indicate decomposable cyanides. Sulphuretted hydrogen, recognized by its odour, results from sulphides containing water, and hydrosulphides. Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water. A sublimate may be formed of : sulphur—reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine—violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds—metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds—metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating. If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide—from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide—white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide—from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide—from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide—from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddish-brown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide—from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide—from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide—from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate—yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat. 2. Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe. (a) The substance may fuse and be absorbed by the charcoal; this indicates more particularly the alkaline metals. 0) An infusible white residue may be obtained,which may denote barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below) ; the last three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give coloured masses; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue ; zinc gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass. A metallic globule with or without an incrustation may be obtained. Gold and copper salts give a metallic bead without an incrustation. If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame; silver gives white metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation. 3. Heat the substance with a bead of microcosmic salt or borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame. (a) The substance dissolves readily and in quantity, forming a bead which is clear when hot. If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling ; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold ; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold ; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame. If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium. When present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead. If the hot colourless bead becomes enamel-white on cooling even when minute quantities of the substances are employed, we may infer the presence of barium or strontium. (fi) The substance dissolves slowly and in small quantity, and forms a colourless bead which remains so on cooling. Either silica or tin may be present. If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change. Certain substances, such as the precious metals, are quite insoluble in the bead, but float about in it. 4. Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame. Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements. By viewing the flame through an indigo prism it appears sky-blue, violet and ultimately crimson, as the thickness of the prism is increased. Other elements do not interfere with this method. Sodium gives an intense and persistent yellow flame; lithium gives a carmine coloration, and may be identified in the presence of sodium by viewing through a cobalt glass or indigo prism; from potassium it may be distinguished by its redder colour; barium gives a yellowish-green flame, which appears bluish-green when viewed through green glass; strontium gives a crimson flame which appears purple or rose when viewed through blue glass; calcium gives an orange-red colour which appears finch-green through green glass; indium gives a characteristic bluish-violet flame; copper gives an intense emerald-green coloration. 5. Film Reactions.—These reactions are practised in the following manner:-A thread of asbestos is moistened and then dipped in the substance' to be tested; it is then placed in the luminous point of the Bunsen flame, and a small porcelain basin containing cold water placed immediately over the asbestos. The formation of a film is noted. The operation is repeated with the thread in the oxidizing flame. Any film formed in the first case is metallic, in the second it is the oxide. The metallic film is tested with 20% nitric acid and with bleaching-powder solution. Arsenic is insoluble in the acid, but immediately dissolves in the bleaching-powder. The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder. The black films of tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, the lead film being also soluble in bleaching-powder. The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish ; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film. The oxide films (the metallic one in the case of mercury) are tested with hydriodic acid, and with ammonium sulphide, and from the changes produced the film can be determined (see F. M. Perkin, Qualitative Chemical Analysis, 1905). Having completed the dry analysis we may now pass on to the wet and more accurate investigation. It is first necessary to get the substance into solution. Small portions should be successively tested with water, dilute hydro- methods. chloric acid, dilute nitric acid, strong hydrochloric acid, and a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, first in the cold and then with warming. Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed. Some of these insoluble compounds can be detected by their colour and particular re-actions. For further information on this subject, we refer the readers to Fresenius's Qualitative Analysis. The procedure for the detection of metals in solution consists of first separating them into groups and then examining each group separately. For this purpose the cold solution is treated with hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous salts as chlorides. The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides. The solution is filtered off, boiled till free of sulphuretted hydrogen, and ammonium chloride and ammonia added. If phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates are precipitated. If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates. In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride. The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent. To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides. Ammonium carbonate is added to the filtrate; this precipitates calcium, strontium and barium. The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings. We now proceed with the examination of the various group precipitates. The white precipitate formed by cold hydrochloric acid is boiled with water, and the solution filtered while hot. Any lead chloride dissolves, and may be identified by the yellow precipitate formed with potassium chromate. To the residue add ammonia, shake, then filter. Silver chloride goes into solution, and may be precipitated by dilute nitric acid. The residue, which is black in colour, consists of mercuroso-ammonium chloride, in which mercury can be confirmed by its ordinary tests. The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution. The precipitate is shaken with ammonium carbonate, which dissolves the arsenic. Filter and confirm arsenic in the solution by its particular tests. Dissolve the residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and tin. The residue from the ammonium sulphide solution is warmed with dilute nitric acid. Any residue consists of black mercuric sulphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is confirmed by its usual tests. The solution is evaporated with a little sulphuric acid and well cooled. The white precipitate consists of lead sulphate. To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is present. Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide. If copper is absent, then sulphuretted hydrogen can be passed directly into the solution. The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides. Treatment with casutic soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, which is reprecipitated by the addition of ammonium chloride. The remaining metals are tested for separately. The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide. The last two are dissolved out by cold, very dilute hydrochloric acid, add the residue is tested for nickel and cobalt. The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate. A white precipitate rapidly turning brown indicates manganese. The solution with ammonium sulphide gives a white precipitate of zinc sulphide. The next group may contain the white calcium, barium and strontium carbonates. The flame coloration (see above) may give information as to which elements are present. The carbonates are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and calcium sulphate solution is added to a portion of the solution. An immediate precipitate indicates barium; a precipitate on standing indicates strontium. If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol,is thus separated, the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests. The solution free from barium is treated with ammonia and ammonium sulphate, which precipitates strontium, and the calcium in the solution may be identified by the white precipitate with ammonium oxalate. Having determined the bases, it remains to determine the acid radicals. There is no general procedure for these operations, and it is customary to test for the acids separately by special tests; these are given in the articles on the various acids. A knowledge of the solubility of salts considerably reduces the number of acids likely to be present, and affords evidence of great value to the analyst (see A. M. Comey, Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities). In the above account we have indicated the procedure adopted in the analysis of a complex mixture of salts. It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and characters of individual substances have been studied, and we therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular elements and compounds for more information on this subject. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis. Quantitative methods are divided into four groups, which we now pass on to consider in the following sequence: (a) gravimetric, (/3) volumetric, (y) electrolytic, (5) colorimetric. (a) Gravimetric.—This method is made up of four operations: (I) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable solvent; (a) a particular reagent is added which precipitates the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed. (i) Accurate weighing is all-important; for details of the various appliances and methods see WEIGHING MACHINES. (2) No general directions can be given as to the method of precipitation. Sometimes it is necessary to allow the solution to stand for a considerable time either in the warm or cold or in the light or dark; to work with cold solutions and then boil ; or to use boiling solutions of both the substance and reagent. Details will be found in the articles on particular metals. (3) The operation of filtration and washing is very important. If the substance to be weighed changes in composition on strong heating, it is necessary to employ a tared filter, i.e. a filter paper which has been previously heated to the temperature at which the substance is to be dried until its weight is constant. If the precipitate settles readily, the supernatant liquor may be decanted through the filter paper, more water added to the precipitate and again decanted. By this means most of the washing, i.e. freeing from the other substances in the solution, can be accomplished in the precipitating vessel. If, however, the precipitate refuses to settle, it is directly transferred to the filter paper, the last traces being removed by washing and rubbing the sides of the vessel with a piece of rubber, and the liquid is allowed to drain through. It is washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammonia or other prescribed liquid on to the side of the filter paper until the paper is nearly full. It can be shown that a more efficient washing results from alternately filling and emptying the funnel than by endeavouring to keep the funnel full. The washing is continued until the filtrate is free from salts or acids. (4) After washing, the funnel containing the filter paper is transferred to a drying oven. In the case of a tared filter it is weighed repeatedly until the weight suffers no change; then knowing the weight of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is obtained by subtraction. If the precipitate may be ignited, it is transferred to a clean, weighed and recently ignited crucible, and the filter paper is burned separately on the lid, the ash transferred to the crucible, and the whole ignited. After ignition, it is allowed to cool in a desiccator and then weighed. Knowing the weight of the crucible and of the ash of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is determined. The calculation of the percentage of the particular constituent is simple. We know the amount present in the precipitate, and since the same amount is present in the quantity of substance experimented with, we have only to work out a sum in proportion. (j3) Volumetric.—This method is made up of three operations: —(I) preparation of a standard solution; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution. (I) In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water. Such a solution is known as normal. Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on. By taking Ath or T6th of these quantities, decinormal or centinormal solutions are obtained. We see therefore that i cubic centimetre of a normal sodium carbonate solution will exactly neutralize 0.049 gramme of sulphuric acid, 0.0365 gramme of hydrochloric acid (i.e. the equivalent quantities), and similarly for decinormal and centinormal solutions. Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal ; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to •01 gramme of the substance to be estimated. This saves a certain amount of arithmetic, but when the solution is applied in another determination additional calculations are necessary. Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting it for any divergence. This may be exemplified in the case of alkalimetry. Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution. An approximate normal sulphuric acid is prepared from 30 CCs. of the pure acid (1.84 specific gravity) diluted to I litre. The solutions are titrated (see below) and the acid solution diluted until equal volumes are exactly equivalent. A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid. Similarly, normal solutions ofihydrochloric and nitric acids can be prepared. Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically. (2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in dissolving an accurately determined weight, and making up the volume in a graduated cylinder or flask to a known volume. (3) The titration is conducted by running the standard solution from a burette into a known volume of the test solution, which is usually transferred from the stock-bottle to a beaker or basin by means of a pipette. Various artifices are employed to denote the end of the reaction. These may be divided into two groups: (1) those in which a change in appearance of the reacting mixture occurs; (2) those in which it is necessary to use an indicator which, by its change in appearance, shows that an excess of one reagent is present. In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized. In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in tse estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it. (y) Electrolytic.—T his method consists in decomposing a solution of a salt of the metal by the electric current and weighing the metal deposited at the cathode. It is only by paying great attention to the current density that rod results are obtained, since metals other than that sought for may be deposited. In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited. Lead and manganese are partially separated as peroxides, but the remaining metals are not deposited from acid solutions. It is therefore necessary that the solution should be free from metals which may vitiate the results, or special precautions taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless. In such cases the simplicity of manipulation and the high degree of accuracy of the method have made it especially valuable. The electrolysis is generally conducted with platinum electrodes, of which the cathode takes the form of a piece of foil bent into a cylindrical form, the necessary current being generated by one or more Daniell cells. (S) Colorimetric.—This method is adopted when it is necessary to determine minute traces (as in the liquid obtained in the electrolytic separation of copper) of substances which afford well-defined colour reactions. The general procedure is to make a series of standard solutions containing definite quantities of the substance which it is desired to estimate; such a series will exhibit tints which deepen as the quantity of the substance is increased. A known weight of the test substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a tube similar to those containing the standard solutions. The colour-producing reagent is added and the tints compared. In the case of copper, the colour reactions with potassium ferrocyanide or ammonia are usually employed; traces of ammonia are estimated with Nessler's reagent; sulphur in iron and steel is determined by the tint assumed by a silver-copper plate suspended in the gases liberated when the metal is dissolved in sulphuric acid (Eggertz's test) (see W. Crookes, Select Methods 'in Analytical Chemistry). Organic Analysis. The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen. We shall here consider the qualitative and quantitative determination of these elements. Qualitative.— Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide. Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime. A more delicate method is that due to J. L. Lassaigne and improved by O. Jacobsen and C. Graebe. The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added. A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts. The halogens may be sometimes detected by fusing with lime, and testing the solution for a bromide, chloride and iodide in the usual way. F. Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present. Sulphur is detected by heating the substance withsodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitroprusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur (H. Vohl). Or we may use J. Horbaczewski's method, which consists in boiling the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution with chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride. Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be examined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate. Quantitative.—Carbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by the combustion process, which consists in oxidizing the substance and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable carbon and apparatus. The oxidizing agent in commonest use is hydrogen. copper oxide, which must be freshly ignited before use on account of its hygroscopic nature. Lead chromate is sometimes used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese dioxide, &c., have been suggested. The procedure for a combustion is as follows: A hard glass tube slightly longer than the furnace and 12 to 15 mm. in diameter is thoroughly cleansed and packed as shown in fig. 1. The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral. The end d is connected to an air or oxygen supply with an intermediate drying apparatus. The other end is connected with the absorption vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and a set of bulbs (f) containing potash solution.. Various forms of potash bulbs are employed; fig. 2 is Liebig's, fig. 3 Mohr's or Geissler's, fig. ¢ is a more recent form, of which special variations have been made by Anderson, Gomberg, Delisle and others. After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks. If all the connexions are sound, the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed through the tube. The success of the operation depends upon the slow burning of the substance. Towards the end the heat and the oxygen supply are increased. When there is no more absorption in the potash bulbs, the oxygen supply is cut off and air passed through. Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down to the temperature of the room. The increase in weight of the calcium chloride tube gives the weight of water formed, and of the potash bulbs the carbon dioxide. Liquids are amenable to the same treatment, but especial care must be taken so that they volatilize slowly. Difficultly volatile liquids may be weighed directly into the boat; volatile liquids are weighed in thin hermetically sealed bulbs, the necks of which are broken just before they are placed in the combustion tube. The length of time and other disadvantages attending the combustion method have caused investigators to devise other processes. In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid. This process has been considerably developed by J. Messinger, and we may hope that with subsequent improvements it may be adapted to all classes of organic compounds. The oxidation, which is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle containing potassium iodide, and a ~J tube containing glass wool moistened with silverdiitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube. The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives a d b the weight of carbon dioxide evolved. C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury. They also showed that carbon monoxide was given off towards the end of the reaction, and oxygen was not evolved unless the temperature exceeded too°. Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact substance have come into favour during recent years. In that of M. Dennstedt, which was first proposed in 1902, the substance is vaporized in a tube containing at one end platinum foil, platinized quartz, or platinized asbestos. The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen. If nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated to 320° is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide which may be formed. The same absorbent quantitatively takes up any halogen and sulphur which may be present. The process-is therefore adapted to the simultaneous estimation of carbon,hydrogen, the halogens and sulphur. Nitrogen is estimated by (I) Dumas' method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume Nitrogen. of nitrogen liberated; (2) by Will and Varrentrapp's method, in which the substance is heated with soda-lime, and the ammonia evolved is absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and thence precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate or estimated volumetric-ally; or (3) by Kjeldahl's method, in which the substance is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate added, the liquid diluted and boiled with caustic soda, and the evolved ammonia absorbed in hydrochloric acid and estimated as in Will and Varrentrapp's method. Dumas' Method.—In this method the operation is carried out in a hard glass tube sealed at one end and packed as shown in fig. 5. The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides. Ulrich Kreusler generates the carbon dioxide in a separate apparatus, and in this case the tube is drawn out to a capillary at the end (a). This artifice is specially valuable when the substance decomposes or volatilizes in a warm current of carbon dioxide. Various forms of the absorbing apparatus (e) have been discussed by M. Ilinski (Ber. 17, p. 1347), who has also suggested the,use of manganese carbonate instead of magnesite, since the change of colour enables one to follow the decomposi- tion. Substances which burn with difficulty may be mixed with mercuric oxide in addition to copper oxide. Will and Varrentrapp's Method.—T his method, as originally pro-posed, is not in common use, but has been superseded by Kjeldahl's method, since the nitrogen generally comes out too low. It is susceptible of wider application by mixing reducing agents with the soda-lime; thus Goldberg (Ber. 16, p. 2546) uses a mixture of soda-lime, stannous chloride and sulphur for nitro- and azo-compounds, and C. Arnold (Ber. 18, p. 806) a mixture containing sodium hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates. Kjeldahl's Method.—This method rapidly came into favour on account of its simplicity, both of operation and apparatus. Various substances other than potassium permanganate have been suggested for facilitating the operation; J. W. Gunning (Z. anal. Chem., 1889, p. 189) uses potassium sulphate; Lassar-Cohn uses mercuric oxide. The applicability of the process has been examined by F. W. Dafert (Z. anal. Chem., 1888, p. 224), who has divided nitrogenous bodies into two classes with respect to it. The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazo- and amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds. Other improvements have been suggested by Dyer (J.C.S. Trans. 67, p. 811). For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of the Dumas, Will-Varrentrapp and Kjeldahl processes see L. L'Hote, C.R. 1889, p. 817. Debordeaux (C.R. 1904, p. 905) has obtained good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium thiosulphate and sulphide. The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube. In the VI. 3first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace. The product is dissolved in water, and the calcium Halogens, haloid estimated in the usual way. The same decomposi- sulphur, tion may be effected by igniting with iron, ferric oxide and phossodium carbonate (E. Kopp, Ber. to, p. 290) ; the operation phorus. is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used. With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate. C. Zulkowsky (Ber. 18, R. 648) burns the substance in oxygen, conducts the gases over platinized sand, and collects the products in suitable receivers, The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at atemperatureof 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid. This method was due to L. Carius (Ann. 136, p. 129). R. Klason (Ber. 19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours in suitable receivers. Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid. A comparison of the various methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O. Hammarsten (Zeit. physiolog. Chem. 9, P. 273), and by Holand (Chemiker Zeitung, 1893, p. 991). H. H. Pringsheim (Ber. 38, p. 1434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation., VI. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter. A physicist, however, does more than mergly quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter. One example will suffice here. The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv=RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics. But this relation is not rigorously true; in fact, it does not accurately express the behaviour of any gas. A more accurate expression (see CON-
End of Article: CHI C

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