smell and a pleasant taste
It may be prepared by the
See also:action of
See also:bleaching powder on many
See also:carbon compounds, such, for example, as
See also:alcohol and
See also:acetone (E . Soubeiran,
See also:Ann. chim. phys., 1831 , 48, p . 131; J . V . Liebig, Ann., 1832, 1, p . 199), by
See also:chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CCI3CHO + NaHO= CHCI3 + NaHCO2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with
See also:ammonia (J .
See also:Dumas, Ann., 1839, 32, p . 113) . In the preparation of
See also:chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is first -oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed . Chloroform solidifies in the
See also:cold and then melts at -62 C.; it boils at 61.2° C., and has a specific gravity 1.52637 (0 /4°) (T . E .
Thorpe) . It is an exceedingly
See also:good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine . It is not inflammable . The vapour of chloroform when passed through a red-hot
See also:tube yields hexachlorbenzene C6C16, .perchlorethane C2CI6i and some perchlorethylene C2C14 (W .
See also:Ramsay and S .
See also:Young, Jahresberichte, 1886, p . 628) . Chromic acid converts it into phosgene (carbonyl chloride, COC12) . It reacts with sodium ethylate to
See also:form ortho-formic ester, CH(OC2H5)3, and when heated with aqueous ammonia for some
See also:hours at 200-220° C. gives carbon monoxide and ammonium formate, 2CHCI3 + 7NH3 + 3H2O = NH4•HCO2 + CO+6NH4C1 (G .
See also:Andre, Jahresb., 1886, p . 627) . When digested with phenols and
See also:caustic soda it forms oxyaldehydes (K .
Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p . 423); and when heated with alcoholic potash it is converted intopotassium formate, CHC13 + 4KHO=KHCO2 + 3KC1+ 2H20 . It combines with acetoacetic ester to form the aromatic compound
See also:meta-oxyuvitic acid, C6H2•CH3.OH•(COOH)2 . A
See also:hydrate, of composition CHC13.18H2O, has been described (G .
See also:Fresenius Zeitschrift f. anal . Chemie, 1886, 25, p . 118) ; it forms hexagonal crystals which melt at 1.6° C . Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a
See also:primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced, CHCI3+
See also:C6H 5N H2+3KHO = C6H 5NC+3KCI+3H20 . For the action and use of chloroform as an anaesthetic, see
See also:ANAESTHESIA . Chloroform may be given internally in doses of from one to five drops . The
See also:British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution—the Aqua Chloroformi—which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful
See also:counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as " chloric
See also:ether "), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to
See also:forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the
See also:equivalent of a proprietary
See also:drug called chlorodyne . This tincture contains chloroform,
See also:morphine and prussic acid, and must be used with the greatest care .
Externally chloroform is an antiseptic, a
See also:local anaesthetic if allowed to evaporate, and a rubefacient, causing the vessels of the skin to dilate, if rubbed in . Its action on the stomach is practically identical with that of alcohol (q.v.), though in very much smaller doses . The uses of chloroform which fall to be mentioned here are:—as a counter-irritant; as a local anaesthetic for toothache due to
See also:caries, it being applied on a
See also:cotton- VI . 9CHM IELNICKI 257 wool plug which is inserted into the carious cavity; as an antispasmodic in
See also:tetanus and
See also:hydrophobia; and as the best and most immediate and effective antidote in cases of
See also:strychnine poisoning .
CHLOROPHYLL (from Gr. XAwpos, green, 4bXXov, a leaf...
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